Sumitomo Electric Technical Review

SUMITOMO ELECTRIC TECHNICAL REVIEW

A journal of technical papers explaining the Sumitomo Electric’s technologies. Technical papers are available in PDF format.

A journal of technical papers explaining the Sumitomo Electric’s technologies. Technical papers are available in PDF format.

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Prefatory Note: Contributing to a Zero-Carbon Society through Technology Development

Efforts toward a Zero-Carbon society to curb global warming have become a major trend worldwide. Back in October 2020, the Japanese government proclaimed the target of achieving Carbon-Neutral by 2050, referred in “Green Growth Strategy,” with a policy to make concerted efforts on the development of renewables and hydrogen energy sources, namely “carbon neutral innovation,” with aims to strengthen the competitiveness of Japanese industry. In addition, a “Green Innovation Funding” was founded to promote it.

Energy Management System, sEMSA, to Realize Carbon Neutral Society

In an effort to create a decarbonized society, Japan, Europe, and the United States are shifting their main energy sources from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources such as solar power. However, the output of renewable energy sources fluctuates depending on weather conditions, making it difficult to provide a stable supply of electricity. As a solution to this problem, efforts are being made to introduce distributed power sources such as small- and medium-scale solar power generators and storage batteries on the consumer side to level out the output fluctuations of renewable energy. As renewable energies are introduced in large quantities in the future, energy management systems will play an important role in integrating distributed power sources and operating them stably and efficiently. This paper discusses a next-generation energy management system that organically links distributed power sources and controls them in an integrated manner. We first discuss the technical challenges of integrated management of distributed power sources, and then summarize the prior technological trends toward the solution of these challenges. Finally, the features and application areas of our energy management system “sEMSA-μGrid” are explained.

Energy Management System, sEMSA, to Realize Carbon Neutral Society
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2.3 MB

Smart Power Supply Systems (SPSS) to Support Sustainable Growth

With efforts to realize a carbon-neutral and sustainable society accelerating on a global scale, Nissin Electric Co.,Ltd. has launched a new medium- to long-term plan, VISION 2025, aiming to contribute to “the realization of a sustainable global environment and a society in which anyone can play an active role” through six growth strategies. Among them, Smart Power Supply Systems (SPSS) are a solution business that supports our growth strategies in the environment and energy fields. This paper introduces the recent efforts for SPSS.

Smart Power Supply Systems (SPSS) to Support Sustainable Growth
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5.2 MB

Area Aggregation System SPSS-H (Home) Technology

With the spread of solar power generation as a renewable energy source and the deregulation of electricity, attention has been focused on the realization of energy management utilizing IoT, such as local production and local consumption of energy and the development of storage batteries and EV-based power storage. To solve problems in the energy field using IoT technology, Nissin Systems Co., Ltd. primarily provides gateway devices, software, and services using cloud systems to develop business for general consumers. This paper introduces the technical contents of the area aggregation cloud system built in the island-and-islets-type Smart Community Actual Positive Business in Miyakojima, Okinawa.

Area Aggregation System SPSS-H (Home) Technology
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2 MB

Analysis and Elucidation of Space Charge and Electrical Conduction Behaviors of Cross-linked Polyethylene by Q(t) Method

It is very important to understand the current that flows in a polymer material when a voltage is applied to it because it reflects the physical phenomena that occur in the material. To measure and analyze the phenomena, we have been studying the direct current integrated charge (Q(t)) method in which integrated currents are measured and analyzed as the amount of charge. Here, the ratio of the charge immediately after the application of square wave voltage Q(0) and the charge tm after the application of voltage Q(tm) is introduced as the charge ratio Rc=Q(tm)/Q(0). The physical meaning of Rc is discussed, and it is shown that Rc can be expressed by a simple equation between the relaxation time of the material and the measured time of the material in an ideal state of electrical conduction. These relations were used to analyze the conductive state of cross-linked polyethylene.

Analysis and Elucidation of Space Charge and Electrical Conduction Behaviors of Cross-linked Polyethylene by Q(t) Method
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1.9 MB

Characteristics of Water Trees in Submarine Cables (Wet-Design) for Offshore Wind Power Generation

The reduction of greenhouse gases has become an urgent issue globally, and thus the introduction of offshore wind power generation is progressing. A higher voltage requirement (at 66 kV-class) for submarine cables is due to increased power output from wind turbines and structural changes to the wet design that omits the water-impervious layer to improve manufacturability, cost, and workability. However, removing the water-impervious layer increases the risk of breakdowns due to insulation deterioration namely “water trees.” A study has been carried out on water tree retardant insulation and it has been confirmed that the new submarine cables meet the standard (CIGRE TB722) established in 2018 even with the omission of the water impervious layer. Considerations were made for a water tree retardant insulation that can be used under high voltage exceeding 66 kV-class in order to cope with long-term operation and higher power output from wind turbines in the future. This development will contribute to the promotion of offshore wind power generation.

Characteristics of Water Trees in Submarine Cables (Wet-Design) for Offshore Wind Power Generation
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1.3 MB

Expansion of HVDC Cable Application in Response to Growing Demand for Renewable Energy Transmission

The cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable has been used for DC transmission lines. We have been developing the DC XLPE cable for a few decades, and proved its quality and reliability through the research and development process. In 2012, we delivered the cable to Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. for its DC 250 kV transmission project, making it the world's highest voltage DC XLPE cable at that time and the first one to be applied to a line commute converter system. Following the project, we successfully completed two new projects: the 250 kV transmission project of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. and the 400 kV transmission project of NEMO Link Ltd. Our DC XLPE cable has an allowable continuous conductor temperature of 90 degrees Celsius, which is equivalent to the conventional AC XLPE cable, and withstands polarity reversal of voltage. This cable will meet the various needs of DC transmission that are expected to increase in the future.

Expansion of HVDC Cable Application in Response to Growing Demand for Renewable Energy Transmission
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2.9 MB

Full-Scale Delivery of Fault Sector System for Overhead/Underground Transmission Lines

Stable electric power supply is vital for today’s society. However, line faults still occur because of lightning strikes or other causes. Line faults must be located and repaired as quickly as possible. In particular, in the case of line faults where overhead and underground transmission lines are connected, recovery measures differ by location. Thus, locating the line fault and determining whether the line fault is on the overhead or underground transmission lines is critical for early recovery. We have developed the Fault Sector System that identify line faults based on the information from current sensors installed on overhead ground wires and underground power cables. This system has been fully implemented in electric power companies. This paper reports on the outline of the system.

Full-Scale Delivery of Fault Sector System for Overhead/Underground Transmission Lines
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3.4 MB

Manhole Monitoring System Using Existing Power Cables as Transmission Line

In the maintenance of underground transmission lines, there is a need to shift from time-based maintenance, where maintenance is performed manually and periodically, to more advanced condition-based maintenance, where maintenance is performed efficiently when necessary, through the promotion of digital transformation using IoT and AI to achieve smart maintenance. One of the challenges in realizing IoT has been the difficulty in developing an inexpensive, safe, and reliable communication method to acquire sensor information about cables installed in conduits, which account for the majority of underground power transmission facilities. This paper describes the development of a system that collects sensor information and camera images using a 66-kV XLPE cable installed in a conduit manhole, in collaboration with TEPCO Power Grid, Inc.

Manhole Monitoring System Using Existing Power Cables as Transmission Line
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2.2 MB

High-Strength Thermal-Resistant Aluminum Alloy Wire with Improved Conductivity and New Conductor Design

The span length of an overhead transmission line crossing a strait can exceed 1000 m. In order to suppress the sag of the line, higher strength conductors are required than those used for the wland part. High-strength thermal-resistant aluminum alloy wires with a conductivity of 55% IACS are used for conductors passing through such spans, but their conductivity is lower than that of the wires used in the land part (60% IACS), which limits the transmission capacity. This time, in collaboration with J-Power Transmission Network Co., Ltd., we have developed a new type of high-strength thermal-resistant aluminum wire with an improved conductivity of 58% IACS. This paper reports on the development of technology and examples of new conductor design.

High-Strength Thermal-Resistant Aluminum Alloy Wire with Improved Conductivity and New Conductor Design
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1.3 MB

AI-base Water Quality Prediction Technology for Sewage Treatment Plant Discharges

Nissin Electric Co.,Ltd. has developed a technology that uses artificial intelligence to predict the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen content (TN), and total phosphorus content (TP) in discharged water two hours after measurement, based on the past measurement data accumulated in the monitoring and control equipment of sewage treatment plants. The technology enables maintenance staff to change the operation of sewage treatment before the water quality deteriorates. This prevents the deterioration of the water quality without effort.

AI-base Water Quality Prediction Technology for Sewage Treatment Plant Discharges
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1.7 MB

Fleet Management System for Connected Vehicles

Many motor vehicle manufacturers around the world are shifting from the vehicle sales business to the mobility service business. Participating in the connected business area, the Information Network R&D Center is developing a prototype solution for managing and analyzing in-vehicle devices, in-vehicle software, and in-vehicle sensor data together with the Systems & Electronics Division, CAS-EV Development Promotion Division, and AutoNetworks Technologies, Ltd. This paper introduces our efforts in commercializing fleet management systems for connected vehicle in the future.

Fleet Management System for Connected Vehicles
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2 MB

Detection of Congested Intersections Using Car-Probe Data

Traffic congestion occurs at intersections with fixed time signal control without vehicle detection sensors. This is partly because the signal control parameters have failed to respond to changes in traffic demand. Therefore, we have developed a technique to detect and analyze congested intersections where the situation will be improved by retiming the signal control parameters. Using this technique, we confirmed that it is possible to identify congested intersections without vehicle detection sensors and analyze traffic conditions.

Detection of Congested Intersections Using Car-Probe Data
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2.5 MB

200 Gbit/s OTN Optical Transmission Device with Line Protection Capability

With the launch of 5G services and AI applications, the amount of data flowing into networks is increasing. While network devices are required to have higher bandwidth, they are also required to be smaller and denser due to limited installation space in urban areas. We have developed a small 200G OTN optical transmission device to improve the accommodation efficiency. This device uses digital coherent optics to achieve long-distance and high-density transmission through wavelength multiplexing. This paper reports the transmission distance and the traffic restoration time in line protection using the device.

200 Gbit/s OTN Optical Transmission Device with Line Protection Capability
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1.7 MB

Small-Diameter and High-Density 6912-Fiber-Count Cable

This paper describes the structure, characteristics, and workability of the small-diameter 6912-fiber-count cable with 200 μm Freeform Ribbon fibers for data center applications. In the 200 μm Freeform Ribbon, fibers meet and split out in turns in a longitudinal and transverse direction, thus allowing high fiber density and mass fusion splicing. Having a non-preferential bend axis, the cable can easily be installed in space-constrained areas. By optimizing the structure and improving the micro-bend resistance of the fiber, we have realized a reduction of the cable cross-sectional area by about 34% compared to the conventional cables. Furthermore, while the conventional cable was pulled into a 2-inch pipeline, the small diameter 6912-fiber-count cable can be applied to a 1.5-inch pipeline, with the same pull-in tension as before.

Small-Diameter and High-Density 6912-Fiber-Count Cable
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3.5 MB

Optical Amplifiers Using Multicore Erbium Doped Optical Fibers

Three types of individual core pump multicore erbium-doped optical fiber amplifiers with different core coupling have been demonstrated. These amplifiers showed better power consumption efficiency, such as 24% for a coupled 4-core optical fiber amplifier. Crosstalk is an important parameter in uncoupled multicore optical fiber transmission. The crosstalk of the uncoupled 4-core optical fiber amplifier is -43 dB, which is comparable to the lowest crosstalk in previously reported multicore optical fiber amplifiers. The mode-dependent loss, an important parameter in coupled multicore optical fiber transmission, corresponds to the core-dependent gain of uncoupled multicore optical fiber amplifiers and weakly coupled optical fiber amplifiers. The core-dependent gain of the weakly coupled 7-core optical amplifier is 0.52 dB, which is comparable to the smallest mode-dependent loss in previously reported multicore optical fiber amplifiers.

Optical Amplifiers Using Multicore Erbium Doped Optical Fibers
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1.7 MB

4-ch Integrated Optical Receiver Module with Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Over 100-Gbit/s and 40 km Transmission

To address the needs for increasing data traffic resulting from the widespread use of advanced mobile terminals and the diversification of internet-based services, over 100-Gbit/s optical transceivers have been used in optical communication systems of data centers. Furthermore, there has been a strong demand for extended reach connection between data centers. We have developed a new compact receiver with a semiconductor optical amplifier for 40 km/80 km transmission. This paper describes the design and typical characteristics of the new optical receiver.

4-ch Integrated Optical Receiver Module with Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Over 100-Gbit/s and 40 km Transmission
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1.1 MB

100 GBaud Waveguide Photodetectors for Next-Generation Data Centers

Optical receivers with intensity-modulation direct detection strongly require ultra-high-speed and high-responsivity performance to 100 GBaud-class toward the next-generation 800 Gbit/s data center networks. This paper demonstrates wide-bandwidth and high-responsivity performance of the InP-based waveguide photodetector integrated with the spot size converter having no polarization dependence. We also introduce the waveguide avalanche photodiodes.

100 GBaud Waveguide Photodetectors for Next-Generation Data Centers
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1.6 MB

Turning Grade AC5005S for Exotic Alloys

Exotic alloys, such as nickel alloys, cobalt alloys, and titanium alloys, are widely used for equipment and parts in the aircraft and automotive industries due to their superior heat and corrosion resistance. There has been a growing demand for the machining tools for these alloys. We released the AC5015S and AC5025S for exotic alloy turning, which use the new physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating technology. Meanwhile, there is a strong need for cutting tools that enable high-efficiency machining. To satisfy these demands, we have developed a new exotic alloy turning carbide grade, AC5005S, which shows excellent wear resistance, plastic deformation resistance, and fracture resistance in high efficient machining. Together with the existing AC5000S series, the new AC5005S will reduce machining costs in a wide range of exotic alloys turning operation.

Turning Grade AC5005S for Exotic Alloys
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2.3 MB

Maximum Smoothness Method for Nondestructive XPS Depth Analysis

Analysis of the structure and composition of materials is essential for product development and quality improvement. The objects of analysis may include semiconductor substrates, plating, and resin surface finishes, specifically the depth profile of chemical species near the surface, and many other determinants of product characteristics. Nondestructive evaluation of depth profiles for individual chemical species in unknown samples is difficult with existing analytical methods. Thus, to meet this need, we have developed a new data analysis technique for angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS), dubbed the maximum smoothness method (MSM). In combination with obtaining depth information using the three XPS systems available to our company, MSM analysis enables nondestructive evaluation of profiles at wide depth ranges. Here, we describe MSM analysis using the three XPS systems and nondestructive depth profile evaluation for a wide range of products.

Maximum Smoothness Method for Nondestructive XPS Depth Analysis
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2.5 MB

Integrated Backup Battery for X-By-Wire System

In recent years, the electrification of automobile components/parts has been progressing with the aim of shifting to electric vehicles to realize a decarbonized society. Electrification will expand the use of by-wire control, which allows devices to be controlled by electrical signals; however, a control failure occurs if the vehicle power source, such as a lead-acid battery, becomes inoperative. Sumitomo Wiring Systems, Ltd. and AutoNetworks Technologies, Ltd. of the Sumitomo Electric Group have developed an integrated x-by-wire backup battery designed for uninterrupted by-wire control of more than one device even in the event of a vehicle power failure. The product was adopted by Toyota Motor Corporation for their Lexus NX launched in 2021.

AF905 - New Cemented Carbide Material for High-Reliability PCB Drills

In recent years, there has been an increase in data processing capacity due to the widespread use of high-per-formance PCs and automatic driving systems and the communication of high-quality video data by smartphones and other devices. Therefore, printed circuit boards (PCBs) used in these products are required to be more heat resis-tant and durable than ever before. To improve heat resis-tance and durability, there has been progress in improve-ment and increase in the content of heat-resistant and heat-dissipating fillers, super-multilayering of boards, and increase in the thickness of boards, all of which make it more difficult to drill holes in boards. Specifically, it leads to increased drill wear and consequent degradation of hole position accuracy, resulting in decreased board reliability due to degraded hole accuracy and hole inner wall quality.

Wrong-Way Driving Detection System on Expressways

In recent years, serious accidents caused by wrong-way driving on expressways have become a problem. Expressway administrators have taken measures to prevent vehicles from running the wrong way particularly at entrances and exits, but no effective measures have been taken on the main lanes. We have developed software that detects wrong-way driving vehicles using the loop-type vehicle detectors already installed on expressways. Further, we have developed a system that notifies the expressway control center when a wrong-way driving vehicle is detected. In this paper, we present the false detection suppression algorism that has been field tested to improve accuracy, and report on the results of accuracy evaluation of the detection system.

Wrong-Way Driving Detection System on Expressways
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1.3 MB

InP-based Photodiodes Integrated with Optical Mixer for 800 Gbit/s Coherent Transmission

Due to the rapid growth of internet traffic, the transmission capacity of optical coherent communication is about to reach 800 Gbit/s. Photodetectors for coherent receivers are required to have three key features: wide frequency bandwidth to support 100 GBaud operations, high responsivity to mitigate the power consumption of local oscillators, and multifunctional integration to reduce footprint and cost. We have developed a wide-bandwidth and high-sensitivity InP-based optical mixer-integrated photodetector that can be installed in an 800 Gbit/s coherent receiver, and a multifunctional integrated photodetector that enables the downsizing and cost reduction of coherent receivers.

InP-based Photodiodes Integrated with Optical Mixer for 800 Gbit/s Coherent Transmission
PDF

1.5 MB

Simple-Structure Low-Loss Multi-Core Fiber LC Connector

We have developed “PureAdvance,” a low-loss and low-nonlinearity pure silica core fiber complying with ITU-T G.654.E, and started supplying it for terrestrial long-haul networks. The excellent practicality of PureAdvance, including reliable terrestrial cabling, low splice loss, and stable Raman amplification, have been demonstrated for actual deployment as terrestrial links. Transmission systems using PureAdvance exhibit higher transmission performance than those with SSMF or NZDSF, making PureAdvance ideal as a transmission medium to support long-haul, high-capacity terrestrial applications including telecom trunk lines, datacenter interconnection, and transmission lines between submarine landing stations and datacenters.

Simple-Structure Low-Loss Multi-Core Fiber LC Connector
PDF

3.1 MB

Low Loss Optical Fibers for Terrestrial Long-Haul Networks, PureAdvance

We have developed “PureAdvance,” a low-loss and low-nonlinearity pure silica core fiber complying with ITU-T G.654.E, and started supplying it for terrestrial long-haul networks. The excellent practicality of PureAdvance, including reliable terrestrial cabling, low splice loss, and stable Raman amplification, have been demonstrated for actual deployment as terrestrial links. Transmission systems using PureAdvance exhibit higher transmission performance than those with SSMF or NZDSF, making PureAdvance ideal as a transmission medium to support long-haul, high-capacity terrestrial applications including telecom trunk lines, datacenter interconnection, and transmission lines between submarine landing stations and datacenters.

Low Loss Optical Fibers for Terrestrial Long-Haul Networks, PureAdvance
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1 MB

High-Conductivity, Thermal-Resistant Aluminum Alloy Wire That Reduces CO2 Emissions in Overhead Transmission Lines

With the ever-increasing demand for reducing the environmental impact, there is a need for overhead transmission lines that can reduce transmission loss. We have been working to improve the conductivity of aluminum alloys for overhead transmission lines. This time, by improving the alloy composition and processing methods, we have developed a new thermal-resistant aluminum alloy wire with an allowable continuous operating temperature of 150°C and high conductivity of 61%IACS. In this paper, we introduce the development of the aluminum alloy wire and the characteristics of overhead transmission lines using the new wire.

High-Conductivity, Thermal-Resistant Aluminum Alloy Wire That Reduces CO2 Emissions in Overhead Transmission Lines
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2 MB

Design Methods of Power Cable Transmission Systems for Large-Scale Installation of Renewable Energy

With the expansion of the use of renewable energy, it is necessary to construct not only AC distribution systems that connect renewable energy power plants to the existing grid but also long-distance large-capacity DC transmission lines. The AC cable systems are prone to various problems such as AC harmonic resonance and current zero missing, which require designs based on power system simulation. The large-scale DC transmission lines are expected to play an important role as multi-terminal transmission systems in the future, and their electrical system design and submarine route design require advanced cable technology. This paper reports on our new cable system design methods for AC distribution lines and DC transmission lines that contribute to the increasing use of renewable energy.

Design Methods of Power Cable Transmission Systems for Large-Scale Installation of Renewable Energy
PDF

3.3 MB

Tungsten Plate with Excellent Thermal Shock Resistance -Application for Fusion Reactors-

The ITER project is being promoted as an international megaproject to scientifically and technically demonstrate the feasibility of fusion energy, which is one of the most promising candidates for achieving a decarbonized society. Among the components of ITER, tungsten (W) is used for a divertor, which is exposed to ultra-high temperatures above 2000°C. For stable operation of ITER, W is required to exhibit excellent thermal shock resistance under a high-temperature heating/cooling cycle. In this study, we have newly developed a W with an improved thermal shock resistance by suppressing the grain growth due to high temperature. Using the developed W, monoblocks were fabricated for small-scale mock-ups and plasma facing unit (PFU) prototypes, and their performance was evaluated by high heat flux test (HHFT) simulating a fusion reactor. HHFT results showed that no cracks occurred even under severe conditions. In particular, the evaluation results of the prototype greatly exceeded the requirements of ITER, and the developed W was certified as “unbreakable tungsten” for the first time in the world.

Tungsten Plate with Excellent Thermal Shock Resistance -Application for Fusion Reactors-
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3.4 MB

All-ZnSe F-Theta Lens for Printed Wiring Board Processing

High-performance F-theta (Fθ) lenses are applied to CO2 laser drilling machines of printed wiring boards to drill micro-via holes with high precision, high speed, and high throughput. They are generally made of zinc selenide (ZnSe) or germanium (Ge), but Ge is more temperature sensitive and has higher absorption than ZnSe. Therefore, as laser power increases, deterioration in the stability and quality of laser drilling tends to occur. Taking advantage of our strength as a comprehensive optics manufacturer that produces a complete range of products from ZnSe materials to finished laser optics products, we have developed a new F-theta lens using ZnSe for all lens elements and a cover window with a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Here, we provide the technical outline of the development

All-ZnSe F-Theta Lens for Printed Wiring Board Processing
PDF

2.9 MB

New Coated-Carbide Grade AC8020P for Steel Turning

In steel machining, particularly in the automotive industry, various efforts are being made to reduce the environmental impact and to use resources efficiently. We released the AC8000P series for steel turning in 2016, which uses the new chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coating technology “Absotech Platinum,” and are continuously expanding the product lineup. Meanwhile, there is a strong need for cutting tools that demonstrate a long tool life and stable performance. To satisfy these demands, we have developed a new steel turning carbide grade, AC8020P, which shows excellent wear resistance and chipping resistance in high-efficiency machining. Together with the existing AC8000P series, the new AC8020P will reduce machining costs in a wide range of steel turning operations.

New Coated-Carbide Grade AC8020P for Steel Turning
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2.8 MB

Advanced Coating System iDS-720

We have been developing the iDS coating system series with improved productivity and film performance since 2012 by reviewing the conventional coating systems from the basics. The iDS series has increased compatibility with a variety of applications by expanding the lineup of chamber sizes. This time, we have developed and launched iDS-720, which is suitable for mass production of tools and manufacturing of large punches and dies.

Advanced Coating System iDS-720
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3.3 MB

Ultra-High Strength Carbon Nanotube Yarn Made by New Growth Method

We have been focusing on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a material for next-generation electric wires that are lighter and more conductive than copper and aluminum wires. CNT single fiber has a greater conductivity than copper and the highest tensile strength of any known material. Aiming at the practical application of CNT electric wires, we have discovered the effectiveness of applying tensile stress to CNTs during the growing process from iron catalysts. In addition, at the University of Tsukuba, where a joint research was conducted, the growth of centimeter-class single fibers was observed in high-speed airflow, suggesting that stress applied during the growth contributes to the lengthening of CNTs. Using this principle as a basis for the growth method, we have created a metric-class CNT yarn that aggregates these long CNT single fibers. The new yarn has several times the strength of the conventional CNT yarn and exceeds the tensile strength of commercially available carbon fibers. This yarn will not only replace carbon fibers but also create new applications that have never been seen before.

Ultra-High Strength Carbon Nanotube Yarn Made by New Growth Method
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3.4 MB

Excellent Thermal Conductive Magnesium Alloy Sheet “SMJ140”

Magnesium alloys have the lowest density of all practical metals. Our AZ91 magnesium alloy sheets are used for thin and light laptop computer bodies due to their superior strength and corrosion resistance in addition to their lightweight. In the electronics industry, 5G devices are being implemented to take advantage of IoT or AI, which can cause heat generation in electronic devices. One of the solutions to this is to improve the thermal conductivity and heat dissipation of the device bodies. In this paper, we introduce a new magnesium alloy sheet, SMJ140, having thermal conductivity in a range from 120 to 140 W/(m·K). These values are doubly higher than that of the AZ91 sheet. The heat dissipation of the SMJ140 is similar to that of a commercial aluminum alloy sheet A5052.

Excellent Thermal Conductive Magnesium Alloy Sheet “SMJ140”
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3.3 MB

Elderly-Friendly Support Service Using Simple ICT Equipment

In 2030, Japan will enter a super-aging society where one in three people will be 65 years old or older. In a social environment, where all kinds of services are changing with the rapid digitization, elderly people with low IT (information technology) literacy are isolated from society. In addition, the aging of supporters who take care of the elderly in the community and the shortage of those supporters have become major social issues. In addition, the prolonged pandemic of COVID-19 has led to a new problem of the elderly becoming isolated due to the lack of face-to-face contact. In the field of welfare, where people support people, the need for IT-based non-contact monitoring systems is expected to grow further in the future. This paper introduces the joint research that Nissin Systems Co., Ltd. has conducted with the Kurobe City Council of Social Welfare in Toyama Prefecture since 2019, based on the company’s concept of “Anyone can easily connect with the community.” The authors present an ICT (Information and Communication Technology) terminal that was developed in the research project for the elderly at home and the support services using the terminal.

Elderly-Friendly Support Service Using Simple ICT Equipment
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2.4 MB

In-situ Analysis of Heat-Treatment Process of Metallic Materials by Synchrotron-Radiation

The properties of electric wires made of copper and aluminum are largely affected by the temperature and time of heat treatment. In order to optimize heat-treatment conditions, we have developed an in-situ measurement technique that uses synchrotron X-rays, which have high transparency and intensity. While this technique is expected to reduce measurement and analysis time, its application to actual operation has been limited due to the opportunities for measurement and the time required for data analysis. In this paper, we report new environmental control systems at our synchrotron beamline in SAGA-LS and a newly developed program for the automatic analysis of large amounts of data. We have confirmed that the in-situ measurement of copper and copper alloys is possible and the difference in softening behavior can be analyzed in a short time.

In-situ Analysis of Heat-Treatment Process of Metallic Materials by Synchrotron-Radiation
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1.9 MB

Low Outgassing Wire for In-vehicle LED Lamp “IRRAX B (K)”

Conventionally, halogen lamps have been used for automotive headlamps and rear lamps. Recently, however, LED lamps have been increasingly used due to their long service life, low power consumption, and quickness to attain maximum brightness. Regarding the internal structure of in-vehicle LED lamps, an LED lamp and a driver module are built into the housing, as shown in Fig. 1. Automotive low-voltage electric wires are used for the wiring. Electric wires used in LED lamps must have anti-fogging characteristics to prevent fogging of the glass over long-term use. However, the electric wire covering causes fogging of the glass due to outgassing after a long period of use. Thus, the electric wire covering used for wiring in LED lamps must have low outgassing properties. This paper introduces our newly developed insulation material with low outgassing properties derived from our proprietary blending technology.

EV High-Power Charging with Quick Charge Connector Assembly (Application of Boost Mode Operation)

Electric vehicles (hereinafter “EVs”) and quick chargers have come into widespread use around the world toward achieving a decarbonized society. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. is supplying EV charge Cable with Connector “CHAdeMO conformity” for Quick Charger in the global market to connect EVs with quick chargers. SEVD-11 and SEVD-02, which are supplied by Sumitomo Electric, are shown in Photo 1, and their basic characteristics are shown in Table 1.

Prefatory Note: Expectations for R&D for Increasingly Diverse and High-Functionality Industrial Materials

Since January 2020, we have seen the spread of the novel pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus. Comparisons of the disease with the Spanish flu epidemic, which took place a century ago, has been on everybody’s lips. The 1918 influenza pandemic is said to have led to more than 40 million deaths, accounting for 2% of the then world population of two billion. Although it is known as the Spanish flu, it is said that the source of infection was U.S. soldiers entering World War I bringing the disease from the United States to Europe. In the first-ever world war, many people, including soldiers, moved and came into contact with other people on a global scale. Probably due to this, infectious diseases could spread very quickly. It is said that the death toll of World War I was 15 million in total, including both military personnel and civilians. Consequently, the number of victims of the Spanish flu was far greater than those of World War I. The world then faced truly difficult times.

Cutting-Edge Carbide Tools for Aircraft Industry

In recent years, increased demand in the aircraft market has led to the need for higher production efficiency of aircraft parts. Heatresistant alloys and titanium alloys, widely employed for aircraft engines and structural members, are classified as difficult-tomachine materials and require cutting tools with high efficiency and long service life. In order to meet these user needs, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed next-generation cemented carbide tools specialized in machining heat-resistant alloys and titanium alloys. For heat-resistant alloys, a new cemented carbide material with excellent high-temperature properties suppresses plastic deformation and wear even in high-speed, high-feed machining, enabling highly efficient machining. For titanium alloys, a newly developed film coating significantly reduces the reaction with titanium alloys, suppressing adhesion to the tool and extending the service life.

New Grade “SUMIBORON BN7115” for Finishing Sintered Ferrous Alloys and Cast Iron

The cubic boron nitride (cBN) cutting tool “SUMIBORON” is mainly composed of cBN particles that have low activity with iron, and has high hardness and high thermal conductivity next to diamond, contributing to productivity improvement and cost reduction in the finishing of difficult-to-cut ferrous materials. In the past decade, the automotive industry has strongly driven the shift to hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles, which requires higher precision and higher efficiency in machining of sintered ferrous alloys and cutting tools with stable performance and longer tool life for cast iron. The authors have successfully developed a new grade “SUMIBORON BN7115” for finishing these materials. BN7115 employs a high-purity cBN particles and new binder consisting of Co-Al-Cr-WC to improve the bonding strength between cBN particles, thereby achieving good resistance to wear and breakage. BN7115 is expected to solve problems such as a degradation of the cuting surface of sintered ferrous alloys caused by the dropout of cBN particles and chipping of edges caused by thermal shock during cutting cast iron.

SUMIBORON BINDERLESS Tools for Finishing Difficult-to-Cut Materials

SUMIBORON BINDERLESS is a polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (CBN) that directly binds nanometer- or sub-micron-level cBN particles without binder materials (Binderless CBN: BL-CBN). BL-CBN is harder or has better thermal conductivity than conventional CBN. Therefore, it offers higher efficiency and longer tool life in the machining of difficult-to-cut materials, such as cobalt-chromium alloys, titanium alloys, nickel-based heat-resistant alloys, and hardened steel for use in the aircraft, mold, and medical industries.

Sensor-Equipped Cutting Tools to Visualize the Cutting Process

The progress of digitalization increases the need for automated and unmanned cutting process. Sensor-equipped cutting tools are expected to be one of the measuring instruments that help visualize and monitor cutting operations because they are positioned closer to the cutting point than conventional measuring instruments, enabling more precise measurement. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has promoted research and development on turning tools and milling tools that are equipped with sensors, wireless communication devices, and electric power sources. This paper presents feasibility studies on the monitoring of cutting operations with our sensor-equipped turning tool and milling tool.

New Coating Technology “Nano-Lamellae CVD-AlTiN”

Ceramic coatings adopted to cutting tools include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coating and physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating. The CVD coating has excellent wear resistance and heat resistance, but is inferior in toughness to the PVD coating. By controlling the coating structure on the nanometer order using the CVD method, we have established a new CVD coating technology that ensures the toughness of PVD coatings while maintaining the wear resistance and heat resistance of conventional CVD coatings, and enabled its mass production. This paper reports on its unique structure, excellent physical properties, and outstanding cutting performance when applied to cutting tools.

High-Efficiency Cutter for Aluminum Alloys Machining “ALNEX ANX Series”

In automobile-related industries, the use of aluminum alloy and other nonferrous metal parts has been increasing to reduce the weight of vehicles for improved fuel efficiency and to respond to the increasing production of hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. To increase the productivity in machining of these parts, cutting tools are required to be easy to handle and highly effective in chip control, for reducing machining time and no-machining time. Furthermore, there is also a growing demand for lighter cutting tools suitable for compact machining equipment to improve the productivity per unit area of machining equipment. To meet these demands, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a polycrystalline sintered diamond (PCD) cutter, ALNEX (ANX Series), for high-efficiency machining of aluminum alloys. This paper describes the features of the new cutter.

Grinding Tools for Heat-Resistant Alloys

Nickel-based heat-resistant alloys, widely used for aircraft jet engines and power plant gas turbines, are difficult-to-cut materials causing short tool life in the grinding process. To meet the market needs for extended tool life and increased machining efficiency, we have developed an innovative electroplated cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheel, CB Master. CB Master demonstrated 5 times longer tool life in grinding jet engine parts, and 1.5 times higher efficiency in processing gas turbine parts than conventional wheels.

Enhanced Functionality of Soft Magnetic Composites for High-Performance Axial Gap Motors

The advancement of electric mobility as well as improvement in the efficiency of home appliance and industrial equipment have led to a need for higher performance motors. Axial gap motors (AGMs) are attracting attention as a motor that meets the need because of their low profile and high torque compared to radial gap motors. We have demonstrated the high torque and high efficiency of AGMs with soft magnetic powder composites (SMPCs) and started mass production of SMPCs for AGMs. In order to contribute to the further adoption of AGMs, we have developed a low-loss SMPC, pole-shoe teeth core, and thin-insulation-coated SMPC.

High-Productivity Green Machining for Variable Valve Timing Sprockets

With the increasing performance of variable valve timing (VVT) systems, there is a growing demand for powder metallurgical parts with more complicated geometries. On the other hand, high productivity is also required in the manufacturing process to respond to the increasing demand for VVT parts. Accordingly, we have applied green machining, which achieves both high formability and productivity. This technology allows green compacts to be machined “before sintering,” which makes it possible to process parts about nine times faster than conventional post-sintering machining and thus enables volume production.

Copper-Coated High-Strength Electrical Wire

In an advanced information society where IoT and drones will widespread and in the near future where multitasking robots will be active due to the declining birthrate and aging population, there will be a greater need for stronger and lighter communication wires more than ever. The Special Steel Wire Division has developed thick copper covered (TCC) wire, which is a conductor composite material in which a high-strength steel wire is coated with a thick copper layer. TCC wire has higher strength than other copper alloy and composite material wires, and is particularly superior in flexibility. This paper reports on the characteristics of TCC wire.

“SmART Strand” Prestressing Steel Strand with Optical Fiber for Tension Monitoring

SmART Strand is a prestressing steel strand equipped with an optical fiber to accurately measure the tension along the entire length of the prestressing steel cable. For prestressed concrete structures and ground anchors, it is important to ensure that the required tension of prestressing steel cable is provided and maintained. In order to directly evaluate the tension of prestressing cable during the installation and use, a new measuring method using SmART Strand has been developed. SmART Strand can be used for the maintenance of prestressed concrete structures and ground anchors, as well as their prestressing management.

Heatproof Aluminum with Excellent Electric Conductivity and Thermal Conductivity

We have developed a new aluminum material that has electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity close to those of pure aluminum, while maintaining strength even at high temperatures. As international regulations on carbon neutrality and CO2 emissions are being tightened at an accelerating pace, and emphasis is being placed on thermal management of electric devices and communication devices that contain high power semiconductors, aluminum materials are expected to be an alternative solution to copper-based materials for their light weight, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity. However, their application range is limited due to the decrease in strength at high temperatures above 150°C. Using powdered aluminum obtained by a quenching solidification method as a raw material, we have succeeded in developing a new aluminum material that maintains strength up to a high temperature of around 250°C, while also maintaining electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity close to those of pure aluminum. We are confident that this new material can meet the needs for lightweight conductive parts and heat dissipation products.

Synthetic Diamond for Nitrogen Vacancy Sensor and Its Applicability

Synthetic diamonds have been widely used in industrial applications due to their high purity and low crystal defects compared to natural diamonds. It is also possible to endow specific electrical and magnetic properties by doping with different types of elements, and is expected to be applied in various fields such as sensing and measurement. We have succeeded in producing a diamond with the world's highest level of purity and lowest level of defects by using our unique high-pressure and hightemperature method. Furthermore, we have created a highly sensitive sensor with the nitrogen vacancy (NV-) center by electron beam processing and ion implantation in cooperation with Nissin Electric Co., Ltd. This paper introduces the high quality diamond synthesized for the NV sensor and its applicability.

On-demand Vehicle Route Planning System for Logistics MaaS

Transportation management systems are one of the business support tools for logistics companies. Conventional systems require manual operation to change the route plan after the vehicle is dispatched, considering its current position and the time of visit to the customer. Therefore, we have developed a vehicle route planning engine and application programming interface (API) that enable real-time modification of the route plan, such as adding new tasks, even after the vehicle is dispatched. In addition, we have developed an automatic vehicle management system that enables users to check the past dispatch results and current task progress. This paper introduces the functions and performance of these systems.

Vehicle Tracking with Multiple Millimeter-Wave Radar

For reducing traffic accidents and congestion, the need for infrastructure sensors is increasing worldwide. In order to cover a large area, multiple infrared sensors are deployed and work together to detect and track vehicles. We have developed a system and detection algorithm to integrate multiple infrared millimeter-wave radars. In this paper, we present the features of the system and the results of field tests.

Cooling-Free Infrared Sensors with Original Nanostructured Si-Ge Thermoelectric Material

A thermopile, which is a type of cooling-free infrared sensor composed of thermoelectric materials, and detects infrared rays without using electric power. For making a high-performance sensor, we developed a germanium-silicon (Si-Ge)-based thin-film thermoelectric material. The thermal conductivity of the Si-Ge thermoelectric material was reduced to 1 Wm-1K-1 due to the artificial nano-structure in the materials. In addition, its Seebeck coefficient was effectively increased by co-doping. This paper demonstrates that the thermopile constructed using the developed nanostructured Si-Ge material successfully detects infrared rays, and a gases detection system using the thermopile detects methane in the ambient air.

Application of Retrofit XLPE Cable for Existing Circuit

A large number of high-pressure fluid-filled (HPFF) and high-pressure gas-filled (HPGF) pipe-type cables had formerly been installed in U.S. power transmission lines since 1930s. As the pipe-type cables age, corrosion of the steel pipes and leakage of the dielectric fluid have become a problem. Using technology patented in the U.S. and Japan, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. designed, delivered, and installed its new high-voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) triplex cable and its accessories for the existing transmission lines.

“SumiTune” High-Precision Temperature Distribution Control System for Single-Wafer Film Deposition Equipment

We supply heaters for heating semiconductor wafers in the single-wafer film deposition processes. Semiconductor wafers are indispensable for 5th generation communications, artificial intelligence, automatic driving, and large-capacity data storage in data centers. The refinement of semiconductor circuits requires the formation of uniform films on wafers, and this demands uniform temperature distribution in the wafers. Conventionally, heaters have been divided and arranged in concentric zones, but this does not cover the subtle unevenness of circumferential temperature distribution caused by various factors in the device environment. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a multi-zone heater and a controller capable of high-accuracy control.

Launching High-Density Microduct Optical Fiber Cable with Freeform Ribbons

Recently, Communication traffic has been increasing rapidly with the development of cloud computing, video distribution, 5G support, and other IT services. In association with this, there has been an increase in demand for smalldiameter, high-fiber-density optical cables in order to overcome physical restrictions of space in ducts. In Europe, North America, and other regions, air-blown optical cables are widely used for FTTH since they make it possible to extend existing conduits (microducts) without additional roadwork, thereby enabling economical network construction. A small-diameter duct used for installing optical cables by blowing compressed air is called a microduct. With the recent increase in transmission capacity and the popularization of FTTH, the need is growing for densely installing a large number of optical fibers into microducts. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed and launched a 432 or fewer count optical fiber cable suitable for air-blowing installation. The new optical fiber cable comprises an intermittent 12-fiber ribbon core made up of 200 μm optical fibers (“200 μm 12-fiber Freeform Ribbon”) that are thinner than conventional optical fibers with an outer diameter of 250 μm.

Ultracompact Optical Fiber Fusion Splicer TYPE-201+

With the recent popularity of telework, as well as the development of remote medical care and cloud services, data communication volume is increasing rapidly. To cope with this situation, there is a need for the construction of high-speed, large-capacity, low-latency communication networks using optical fibers. At the same time, the companies responsible for network construction have high expectations for a drastic improvement in work efficiency to efficiently manage the increased construction work. In order to meet these expectations, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. thoroughly pursued the ultimate in workability for the previous fusion splicer, TYPE-201e, without changing its features: compactness and lightweight. As a result, the company has developed a new ultracompact optical fiber fusion splicer, TYPE-201+ .

Behind the Scenes of the Development of DC XLPE Power Cables The Teachings of Prof. K. Yahagi: “Seek the Truth”

The author received the Yahagi Memorial Award 2019 from the Technical Committee on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, thevInstitute of Electrical Engineering of Japan. In this paper, memories of the late Prof. Kichinosuke Yahagi and his teachings arevdescribed by a former student. The teachings of Prof. K. Yahagi can be summarized as “Seek the Truth.” The author pursued avnumber of truths according to said teachings in his research and development endeavors. The development of cross-linkedvpolyethylene insulated DC power cables rated for the world’s highest voltage was brought about as one of the results of thevteachings.

Fifty Year History of Optical Fibers

Optical fiber communication started to become practical use in 1970, when an optical fiber with a transmission loss of 20 dB/kmvand a laser diode continuously emitting at room temperature appeared. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has enterprisinglyvdedicated the development and commercialization of optical fibers since the early days. Utilizing the vapor-phase axial depositionvmethod, which has spread worldwide as a preform manufacturing process, we have kept launching high-quality optical fibers andvcables such as ultra-low-loss silica core fibers and ultra-high-density optical cables. This way, we have continued to support thevexpansion of optical fiber networks as one of the indispensable social infrastructure. This paper looks at the evolution of opticalvfiber technology and our efforts in developing optical fibers and cables that would meet the need of the time.

Downsizing of In-vehicle DC/DC Converters with GaN Devices

Electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles are in widespread use and these vehicles are all equipped with DC/DC converters forvcharging lead-acid batteries from high-voltage storage batteries. To simplify the installation, DC/DC converters are required to bevsmall. This paper describes a DC/DC converter that has been downsized by 50% compared with conventional ones by increasingvthe switching frequency from 100 kHz to 500 kHz using GaN devices.

X-Band 300 W High-Power GaN HEMT for Marine Radar Systems

Magnetrons have long been used as transmitting devices for marine radar, however, gallium nitride high-electron-mobilityvtransistors (GaN HEMT) are increasingly adopted due to their long life, high performance, and compliance with radio laws andvregulations. This paper presents our internally-matched X-band GaN HEMT that feature the industry's highest output power of 300vW, targeting a variety of marine radars ranging from small-power radars for pleasure boats to high-power radar for largecommercialvvessels. We also report on a prototype compact solid-state amplifier that has been made to demonstrate thesevtransistors.

Consideration of Design Strategy of GaN HEMTs for Base Stations

In recent years, gallium nitride high-electron-mobility transistor (GaN HEMT) amplifiers with high efficiency have been adopted due to the increasing demand for downsized and low-power-consumption base stations. In 5G networks, where further improvement in network capacity and data rates is required, the presence of GaN HEMTs is expected to grow further due to their advantages in broadening the bandwidth of amplifiers. This paper describes the characterization and analysis method for the current source of GaN HEMTs that we are working on to develop the GaN HEMT amplifiers for base stations. We newly adopted a large-signal lowfrequency measurement that enables evaluation under conditions close to the actual radio frequency operation, to explore design guidelines for GaN HEMTs. In addition, we analyzed the effect of gate voltage clipping in class-F and inverse class-F operation, which is known as a method for improving the efficiency of amplifiers by using a large-signal model to figure out the limiting factorvof efficiency.

Burst-Mode Receiver for 50G-EPON Optical Line Terminals

A large capacity of the Internet is strongly demanded due to the increase of internet-connected devices and the diversification of internet-based services. To address these needs, we are in a new phase to upgrade the transmission speed of access optical networks from the current mainstream 10G class to 50G class. We have developed a new transimpedance amplifier (TIA) capable of receiving 25.78 Gbit/s burst signals to meet the demand for higher-speed transmission. Using the TIA and avalanche photodiode (APD), we have developed a 25.78 Gbit/s/λ burst-mode receiver, and confirmed its applicability to 50G-EPON optical transceivers for the first time in the world.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing Transmission Method for 5G Radio Access Networks to Achieve 40 km Transmission

We have developed a wavelength division multiplexing transmission method to efficiently connect radio base stations and antennas with a small number of optical fibers. In the fifth generation (5G) radio access networks, there is demand for a technology that can economically transmit 25G Ethernet signals over up to 40 km by wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). This paper introduces the half-rate transmission method that enables 40 km WDM transmission by dividing 25.8 Gbit/s signals into two channels of 12.9 Gbit/s signals and transmitting them.

High-Quality SiC Epitaxial Wafer “EpiEra” Realizing High-Reliability Large-Current Power Devices

Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices are promising next-generation devices and their market is growing globally year by year. The quality of SiC epitaxial wafers is particularly important to secure the reliability of large-current power devices used for automotive applications. Basal plane dislocation (BPD) in the SiC epitaxial wafers causes stacking fault expansion, which leads to the fatal degradation of SiC bipolar devices. To suppress the stacking fault expansion, the introduction of highly nitrogen-doped layer called a “recombination-enhancing layer” has been proposed. In this study, we have established a method to evaluate BPD in the recombination-enhancing layer by investigating the receiving filter using photoluminescence imaging, and successfully obtained a 150 mm SiC epitaxial wafer with extremely low BPD density. We also confirmed that BPD and surface defects in the drift layer were simultaneously suppressed, demonstrating the new epitaxial wafer has stable characteristics for large chip devices.

AI-based Diagnostic System for Utility-Scale Solar Power Plants

To ensure the stable operation of utility-scale solar power plants over a long period, it is necessary to improve the inspection and maintenance levels, especially the inspection efficiency of the DC voltage parts, for which visual inspection has been conducted. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a system that detects abnormalities in solar panels by analyzing string data with AI. Data on detected abnormalities, including their types and urgency, are reported to the power plant manager via daily emails and used for efficient facility maintenance. Using the system, we also provide diagnostic services suggesting best inspection methods and countermeasures for the abnormalities.

DC Distribution System for Improved Power System Resilience with Renewable Energy

With the expanding introduction of renewable energy sources and advances in semiconductor and energy storage technologies, direct current (DC) distribution systems that combine renewable energy sources and storage batteries have attracted attention as economical and environment-friendly next-generation power supply systems. These systems are also expected to help improve power system resilience and business continuity planning (BCP). This paper introduces the background of our study and the details of the DC distribution demonstration system built at the Nissin Academy Training Center.

Novel Diamond-Like Carbon Film “HC-DLC” for Engine Parts That Slide on Soft Metals

We have developed a new diamond-like carbon film “HC-DLC," which is produced by vacuum arc deposition and contains hydrogen. With its appropriate hydrogen content, this film obtained extremely low attackability to soft metals without compensating its high wear resistance and seizure resistance in engine oil containing MoDTC. The film demonstrates excellent performance in protecting piston pins that repeatedly slide on soft metals. To meet market needs, the mass production of the film started in the fall of 2019, and now further application to the next-generation high-efficiency engines is under consideration.

Commercialization of Bi-2223 Superconducting Wires and Their Applications

Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has been engaged in the development of high-performance and long-length Bi2223 hightemperature superconducting wires. These wires and their applied products, such as current leads for magnetic resonance imaging, have been commercialized and well received by the market. This paper describes the recent development and commercialization of Bi2223 wires and typical products incorporating the wires, as well as wire joint technology and high-current conductor technology, which are indispensable for expanding the application of the wires.

Four-Dimensional Big Data Analysis Using Two-Step Multivariate Curve Resolution Technique

For research and development in material science, it is important to understand the three-dimensional (3D) distributions of chemical species in samples. The effective utilization of 4D big data which contain a lot of information about the 3D distributions is a key factor. This paper demonstrates a new 4D data analysis technique called “two-step multivariate curve resolution (MCR)”. To obtain an intuitive expression of 4D data, we devised a process involving two iterations of MCR with digitization in between. The new technique was applied to the analysis of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry data derived from a thin-film sample to assist in the interpretation of complex three-dimensional local microstructures. Compared to conventional methods of data presentation, two-step MCR was found to greatly facilitate the clarification and understanding of the 4D analysis data.

Application of Powder Simulation to Powder Metallurgy

In order to meet the demand for high dimensional accuracy in powder metallurgy products, we have been developing powder simulation techniques to support the design of the production process. Powder simulations provide a macroscopic interpretation of powder behavior by calculating the motion of individual particles that constitute the powder. In this paper, the powder simulation is applied to the milling process of raw powder and the powder feeding process of metal powder. Although the milling efficiency can be predicted from the collision energy of the balls in a ball mill, it is necessary to reproduce the motion of each ball with complicated collision process to predict the collision energy accurately. In this study, we have developed an analysis technique to predict the change of the collision energy when the milling conditions are changed, in order to improve the performance of the milling process. We have also developed an analytical technique to visualize the powder behavior in the powder feeding process to clarify the mechanism of the filling variation in the die.

Backup Battery for X-By-Wire System

"In recent years, there has been an increase in the demand for by-wire technologies for improved safety and convenience. Brake-by-wire and shift-by-wire technologies, which have been widely used, are essential for future selfdriving cars. The market is expected to expand for them in the future. However, as the by-wire-technology controls a device through electrical signals, a control failure occurs if the vehicle power source such as a lead-acid battery becomes out of order . Sumitomo Wiring Systems, Ltd. and AutoNetworks Technologies, Ltd. of the Sumitomo Electric Group have developed an x-by-wire backup battery designed for uninterrupted by-wire control even in the event of a vehicle power failure."

Prefatory Note: Development of Sumitomo Electric’s Electric Conductor and Functional Products

"Our copper wire manufacturing technologies, which originated from Sumitomo’s copper business, were subsequently applied to electrical wire and cable products. Based on these products, the Sumitomo Electric Group has continuously developed its new technologies and products. Electrical wire and cable manufacturing technologies are divided roughly into conductor technologies and covering material technologies required for insulating wires. Let us take a look at the history of diversification of Sumitomo Electric’s products along with the growth of these technologies."

Contact Wire for High-Speed Dedicated Freight Corridor in India

As part of its overseas business, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has been providing contact wires for the high-speed dedicated freight corridor that is being constructed in India. To enter the Indian contact wire market, it was necessary to satisfy the specifications required by the local customer, such as high conductivity and high tensile strength based on overseas standards. Taking advantage of our accumulated expertise in copper-tin alloys, we achieved the required properties by adjusting the tin and oxygen ratio in material casting and by improving the drawing process of contact wire. This paper introduces our technical development.

Simulation Technology for Air Springs of Railway Systems

The air spring is an essential component for improving the comfort of railway vehicles and realizing safe high-speed driving. Due to the growing urban population and increased concern about environmental issues, railways are attracting attention because they have higher transportation efficiency than automobiles and aircraft and contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions and energy consumption. As the railway network spreads all over the world, air springs with various characteristics are required depending on the route and environment. To respond to such market needs and make proposals in a speedy manner, we are developing innovative design methods based on computer simulation. This time, we have developed a simulation technology that accurately predicts the static and dynamic characteristics of air springs.

Magnet Wires for Driving Motors in Electric Vehicles

The electrification of vehicles has been advanced rapidly with the aim of reducing environmental impact. This paper summarizes the transition of motor design technology and its future development trends with a focus on driving motors for electric vehicles as a benchmark. We also report on the current status of our efforts towards the development of rectangular wires that contribute to the improvement of motor performance. In our efforts, we have worked to enhance the insulation performance of the film coating for magnet wires and reduce their size variation.

Analysis Technologies for Quality Improvement in Magnet Wires of Electrified Vehicles

Magnet wire is an electrical wire coated with an insulation film. We analyze its constituent elements such as a conductor, insulation film, and the interface between them, in order to improve the quality and performance of the wire. It is increasingly important to develop novel and advanced analysis technologies and use them depending on the purposes of analysis. This paper reports on our unique technology and approach to the analysis of the aforementioned elements.

Copper-Clad Aluminum Wire DCCA for Speakers on Mobile Devices

With the spread of mobile devices, market needs are increasing for the improved sound quality of small speakers. Self-bonding magnet wires used in the voice coils of small speakers are required to be durable against vibration and to be lightweight for enhanced responsiveness in a high-frequency range. Our copper-clad aluminum wire is resistant to fatigue fracture caused by vibration. The wire comes with various densities and conductivities by changing the composition ratio of the copper coat and aluminum core. This paper reports on the development of the wire that has increased flexibility in coil design and durability for the improved sound quality of small speakers.

Composite Metal Wires Made by Cladding and Plating

The composite metal wire is composed of multiple metallic phases and has multiple functions at a relatively low cost. The Sumitomo Electric Group offers a variety of composite metal wire products that are made by cladding and plating. This paper introduces the technologies and application examples of our wires.

Application of Heat-Resistant Porous Metal

Celmet, the unique porous metal product of Sumitomo Electronic Toyama Co. Ltd., has high gas-diffusivity and high electric conductivity. Celmet is a good candidate for the cathode current collectors of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that require uniform gas-diffusivity and high electric conductivity. Thus far, we have examined the application of nickel (Ni) Celmet to the collectors, however, the desired output power density has not been obtained due to the decrease in electric conductivity caused by the oxidation of Ni at high temperature of the fuel cells. We have developed new nickel cobalt (NiCo) Celmet that forms conductive ceramics, keeping high electric conductivity at high temperature and highly oxidizing atmosphere. This paper introduces the physical properties of the NiCo Celmet and reports on the performance of an SOFC that uses the new Celmet for its cathodic current collector.

Dual-Wall Heat-Shrinkable Tubing with Hot-Melt Inner Layer for Anti-Corrosion Protection of Automotive Aluminum Wires

Heat shrinkable tubing is used for the insulation and mechanical protection of electric wires in fields such as electronics and aircrafts. Among such tubing, dual-wall heat-shrinkable tubing is used for the waterproofing of automotive wiring harnesses at the joints of electric wires. In recent years, with the aim of improving fuel efficiency and reducing vehicle weight for the reduction of CO2 emissions, aluminum wires have been attracting attention as the replacement of conventional copper wires. We have developed a new dual-wall heat-shrinkable tubing for the anti-corrosion protection of aluminum wires at their terminals.

Elucidation of Molecular Structure and Adhesion State of Cross-Linked Fluororesin

Fluororesin, represented by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), is an excellent polymer that has the lowest level of friction performance among solids and the highest level of heat resistance, chemical resistance, weather resistance, and electrical properties among resins. In contrast, it has poor wear resistance and hardly adheres to substrates when used as a composite material. Through electron beam irradiation under special conditions, we promoted the cross-linking reaction of fluororesin and developed a new material that features wear resistance improved nearly 1,000 times compared with the conventional material and good adhesion to substrates. This paper investigates the cross-linking state of the new material using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and elucidates its adhesion state to substrates utilizing SPring-8 hard X-rays.

Electron-Beam-Irradiated Cross-Linked Gears with High Durability

We have applied cross-linking technology to plastic materials through high-energy electron-beam irradiation to obtain gears with high durability. Sumitomo Electric Fine Polymer’s Teralink cross-linked gears, which use polyamide 66 as their base polymer, exhibit a three-fold improvement in durability in terms of the amount of tooth load that they can withstand compared to gears made of the same base polymer.

PTFE Gas Separation Membranes "POREFLON NANO"

Porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were first developed by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. as “POREFLON.” Thanks to its high chemical and heat resistance, POREFLON has been used for microfiltration in various industrial applications. With advanced technological innovations, Sumitomo Electric has newly developed a nano-porous PTFE membrane “POREFLON NANO” and confirmed its high degassing and gas separation performance.

Energy- and Space-Saving Hollow Fiber Membrane Module Unit for Water Treatment

We have developed and marketed a new POREFLON membrane module unit for water treatment. It has a smaller footprint and is more energy saving than conventional products. In addition to the features of the conventional POREFLON hollow fiber membrane such as fouling resistance, high strength, and bending resistance, the module unit features the cassette type module structure, increased effective membrane length, enhanced packing density, and newly developed air diffusers that generate large air bubbles to prevent fouling. In a pilot test for municipal wastewater treatment jointly conducted with Japan Sewage Works Agency and others, we achieved a power consumption per unit of 0.4 kWh/m3 or lower, which was the target point for the popularization of membrane treatment. The module unit passed another several field trials and was currently commercialized. This report introduces the development process, product specifications, and case studies regarding the new membrane module unit.

Ethernet Access Switch for Carrier Ethernet That Contributes to Operation Expenditure Reduction

Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed an Ethernet access switch for Carrier Ethernet that contributes to the reduction of operation expenditures. We have integrated functions of a fiber optic media converter and a layer-2 aggregator into one Ethernet access switch. This has enabled a power- and space-saving solution compared with conventional device sets. The switch features hitless firmware upgrades, zero touch provisioning, NETCONF, alarm notifications and line test capabilities. At the end of the paper, we report on the experimental results of Streaming Telemetry.

High-Speed VCSEL Arrays for 400 Gbit/s Data Center Interconnects

This paper reviews device design and performance of high-speed vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays for nextgeneration short-reach 400 Gbit/s applications in data centers using the advanced PAM-4 modulation format. The both 850 nm/900 nm PAM-4 VCSELs have been optimized to improve dynamic performance and suppress noise for PAM-4 transmission. The new VCSELs also show good uniformity of characteristics, which is advantageous for array products.

Active Optical Cable Using USB Type-C Connector

Demand for high-resolution displays and virtual reality applications is increasing and the use of these devices is spreading rapidly in the consumer electronics market. Cables attached to these devices are required to support high-speed and long-distance transmission, while maintaining their plug size. We have developed an active optical cable with a USB Type-C connecter (a smallsized multifunctional interface) and a plug of the same size as that of a conventional cable. This paper introduces the new cable, describing its design, transmission characteristics, and results in a reliability test.

New Milling Grades—ACU2500 for general purposes,ACP2000/ACP3000 for steel milling, and ACK2000/ACK3000 for cast iron milling

In the machining industry, long tool life and high machining efficiency are required for cost reduction and productivity improvement, and sudden troubles need to be reduced for factory automation. Furthermore, machining facilities have been increasingly integrated into single facilities that can process various work materials. In such circumstances, we have developed a general-purpose grade “ACU2500” that achieves a stable and long tool life in the milling of a wide range of work materials including steel and cast iron. We have also developed special grades ”ACP2000 / ACP3000” and “ACK2000 / ACK3000” that offer high machining efficiency and long tool life in steel milling and cast iron milling, respectively. While covering a wide variety of work materials, these five grades demonstrate 1.5 times longer tool life and twice higher efficiency than conventional grades, enabling significant cost reduction and productivity improvement.

Coated Cermet Grade T2500Z for Steel Turning

Cermet tools, characterized by low affinity with steel, realize high-quality finished surfaces in steel cutting and are commonly used for finishing. In the automobile, industrial machinery, and other manufacturing industries, high machining efficiency has become important year by year for lessening the environmental impact and machining costs. In increasingly severe machining conditions resulting from the pursuit of high efficiency, cermet tools are strongly required to offer long tool life and high-quality finished surfaces. Under such circumstances, we have developed and launched “T2500Z,” a new cermet grade that features a long tool life and excellent finished surface quality. The T2500Z has twice the tool life of our conventional steel-turning grades, thus making it possible to meet user needs for high efficiency.

Demonstration of Performance Improvement in Nanostructured Si-Ge Thermoelectric Materials Utilizing Novel Co-doping Technique

Thermoelectric generation that directly converts waste heat into useful electric power has attracted considerable attention as one of the most efficient techniques leading to a low carbon, sustainable society. For automobile exhaust heat power generation, the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials, which parameterizes the efficiency of energy conversion, needs to be more than 4, but at present it is considered to be extremely difficult to reach. We are conducting research and development to overcome this issue by modulating the electronic structure of materials, that is, with precise control of nanostructures. By controlling nanostructures, we have succeeded in lowering the thermal conductivity of conventional Si-Ge thermoelectric materials to 1/7 and improved their materials figure of merit. In this study, in order to improve the performance even further, we propose a unique technique called a co-doping method (modulating electronic structures with doped Au and controlling the Fermi level with doped B). With this method, we have achieved ZT = 1.38, which is the best result for the same materials of the same type.

Mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Operable in High Temperature (200°C)

A quantum cascade laser (QCL) is the most promising semiconductor laser for trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared region due to its excellent features such as a small chip size, high speed modulation, and a narrow linewidth. In practical gas-sensing, QCLs are required to achieve single-mode operation and wide-wavelength tuning without mode-hopping for high-sensitive and multiple gas detection. To obtain the wide tuning range of QCLs, increasing the operation temperature is effective. Therefore, we have developed a distributed feedback (DFB)-QCL that can operate at high temperature by introducing our original strain-compensated core structure and buried-hetero waveguide structure. As a result, we have successfully achieved single-mode operation without mode-hopping between -40ºC and 200ºC under a pulse condition, leading to a wide tuning range of 123 nm with only a singlewaveguide QCL. As a future challenge, we will develop a gas-sensing method using the above-mentioned DFB-QCLs as the light source.

Ultra-High-Fiber-Count Optical Fiber Cable with High-Strength Jacket

In recent years in Japan, behind the widespread use of cloud computing, data center networks serving as a fundamental technology have been handling an increasing amount of data transmission, which also lead to a growing for increased ultra-high-fiber-count and higher-density cables. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has successfully commercialized the world’s first cable containing 3456 or more fibers and shipped it to its many customers.

New Ribbon Fiber Splicer TYPE-72M12

"With the recent expansion of cloud services, countries around the world are facing a pressing need for building data centers. Optical fiber cables for data center applications now comprise of thousands of core optical fibers. There is a noticeable tendency for these cables to be made even denser by increasing the number of core optical fiber cores, for example, from 1728 to 3456. As optical fiber cables become increasingly dense, data center construction companies have high expectation for a device that improves work efficiency through mass fusion splicing of ribbon fibers. To meet these users’ new expectations, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a new ribbon fiber splicer TYPE-72M12 that both saves optical fiber splicing/heating time and reduces workloads."

Recent Development Trends of Redox Flow Batteries

Along with the progress of global warming, the introduction of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power has been promoted, and large-capacity energy storage batteries have become important as a measure to stabilize electric power systems. A redox flow battery (RFB) is one of such batteries. It is charged and discharged by redox reactions*1 of ions in an aqueous solution containing active materials*2. The RFB is suitable for large capacity storage and has excellent features such as long life and high safety. We began developing RFBs in 1985 and have delivered approximately 30 units. As a global trend, research and development have been actively promoted particularly in the United States, Europe, and China since around 2010, and recently, there have been many reports on new electrolytes using organic compounds. This paper introduces the development history of RFBs, the demonstration status of large capacity systems, and the recent development trends.

Optical Fiber Array with 90-degree Bend for Silicon Photonics Chip Coupling

Recently, the demand for silicon photonics (SiPh) optical transceivers for data centers has been increasing rapidly. In order to address this situation, we have developed FlexBeamGuidE (FBGE) as an optical interconnection device indispensable for SiPh chips. The FBGE is an optical fiber array with a 90-degree bend, formed using state-of-the-art stress-free fiber bending technology. The developed FBGE is suitable for use in SiPh optical transceivers because of its compact nature with an overall height of less than 3.8 mm, low attenuation loss of less than 0.5 dB, and high reliability.

Ultra-High-Density Microduct Optic Cable with 200 μm Freeform Ribbons for Air-Blown Installation

This paper describes a newly designed ultra-high-density (UHD) microduct optical cable to be installed into microducts with airblowing technique. The UHD microduct cable employs Freeform Ribbon, in which fibers meet and split out in turn in longitudinal and transverse directions, thus allowing high fiber density and mass fusion splicing. In order to enhance the blowing efficiency, we employed a thin and lightweight cable design and low friction jacket material. In addition, we have significantly increased fiber density owing to a bend-insensitive and thin optical fiber and Freeform Ribbon technology. We also evaluated the blowing performance in collaboration with Plumettaz S.A. to confirm the excellent blowing property of the developed cable.

Compact 4-ch Integrated Optical Receiver Module for 400-Gbit/s Transmission

There has been a strong demand for increasing data traffic resulting from the growth of advanced mobile terminals and the diversification of internet-based services. To address the needs, 100-Gbit/s optical transceivers have been used in optical communication systems. For further increase in data capacity, a new specification for 400-Gbit/s optical communications has been standardized, and optical transceivers applicable to it have been developed actively. We have developed a new compact receiver for 400-Gbit/s transmission based on the structure of our previous 100-Gbit/s receivers. This paper describes the design and typical characteristics of the new optical receiver.

Wideband High-Power High-Efficiency Amplifiers with GaN HEMTs for Base Station Applications

Gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors (GaN HEMTs) are characterized by high power, high efficiency, and wideband operation. In recent years, they have gained market share for base station applications. GaN HEMTs are more advantageous for wideband applications than LDMOSs and, therefore, expected to contribute to the establishment of high-power multi-band base stations. This paper presents a packaged GaN HEMT device with internal matching circuits. A high-power wideband asymmetric Doherty amplifier using the devices are also described. The transistor has a pair of 180 W GaN dies. The internal matching circuit is designed with a high-dielectric substrate so that it can be mounted in a compact package while maintaining the wideband characteristics. The asymmetric Doherty amplifier is fabricated using three transistors to cover B1 and B3 LTE bands. It achieves an output power of 59.2 dB and drain efficiency of more than 50% at 8-dB power back-off in the 1.8-2.2 GHz range.

Cloud Server Architecture to Optimize the Use of Distributed Energy Resources

For the next-generation power systems, a mechanism called Virtual Power Plant (VPP) is expected to be deployed, where distributed energy resources are aggregated and remotely controlled by a resource server so that it operates like a virtual power plant. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed what is called a resource aggregation server, s EMSA server, which plays a core role in this mechanism. Sumitomo Electric has been working to develop VPP systems and extend energy resources in order to enter a new electric power market that will be created after 2020. This paper presents the features of sEMSA server and its verified performance in pilot projects for VPP operation and photovoltaic power generation control.

Low Wind-Pressure Aluminum Conductors Insulated Wire with Grooved Surface

Copper conductors cross-linked polyethylene insulated wires are widely used for overhead distribution lines in Japan. On the other hand, a trend can be seen in the shift from copper conductors to aluminum conductors because aluminum is light and moderately priced. For the replacement, however, the increased diameter of insulated wires is inevitable due to the difference of conductivity between aluminum and copper. This causes an increase in wind pressure on wires, occasionally requiring rebuilding supporting structures (for example poles). Under such a circumstance, we have developed a low wind-pressure aluminum insulated wire with an original grooved surface. This helps reduce the wind pressure at a wind velocity of both 28 m/s and 40 m/s. Featuring competent electrical performance and workability for connection and other wiring work, the wire has been applied to actual distribution lines.

“System UPS” That Uses Consumer Power Resources for Peak Shaving and Business Continuity Plan

The “System UPS” is an energy solution system that achieves both peak shaving and business continuity plan (as a countermeasure for instantaneous voltage drop and blackout). It combines battery energy storage systems with emergency generators on the consumer side. Aiming to present a solution that offers new customer value as part of our SPSS (Smart Power Supply System) business, we are conducting verification at Maebashi Factory of Nissin Electric Co., Ltd. We report on the development progress and demonstration results of the System UPS.

Turning Grades ‘AC5000S’ for Exotic Alloys

Exotic alloys, such as nickel alloys, cobalt alloys, and titanium alloys, are widely used for equipment and parts in the aircraft and auto industries due to their superior heat and corrosion resistance. There has been a growing demand for the machining tools for these alloys. When machined, exotic alloy work materials are likely to adhere to the edges of cutting tools, resulting in a sudden fracture of the tools. These tools have a significantly shorter life than those used for general steel. Thus, demand is high for cutting tools with stable performance and long tool life. The newly developed grades, AC5015S and AC5025S, are characterized by improved wear and fracture resistance with a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition coating and special cemented carbide. These materials help reduce tool replacement frequency and tool consumption by extending tool life, thus contributing to the reduction of machining costs.

Application of Nano-Polycrystalline Diamond to Wear Resistant Tools

In recent years, the quality level required for diamond dies has risen along with an improvement in the precision of wire materials such as semiconductor bonding wires and medical wires. Requirements are increasing for wire characteristics, particularly wear resistance and properties to maintain roundness and wire surface roughness. In order to meet the needs, we have developed the BLPCD die using a nano-polycrystalline diamond (Sumidia binderless) developed by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. as its core material. This paper reports the performance evaluation results.

Molybdenum Alloy “MSB Series” for Hot Extrusion Dies

Extrusion tools made of refractory metals, such as molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten, are used in increasingly severe environments. Nevertheless, these tools are required to have superior mechanical properties, long life, and excellent reliability. We have developed a new Mo alloy “MSB” for hot extrusion dies used in plastic working, by using a dispersed Mo-base intermetallic compound. The MSB exhibited superior mechanical properties compared with conventional Mo alloys at temperatures below 1000°C. In addition, by adding a titanium alloy to the MSB, we have developed another alloy “T-MSB” that has high mechanical properties at high temperatures. In the hot extrusion of brass, dies made of these Mo alloys had 2.5 times longer tool life than conventional Mo dies.

Automating FIB Sample Preparation to Improve STEM Throughput

In the development and production of compound semiconductor devices, atomic-scale structural analysis is required to evaluate their performance and characteristics. For the analysis, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is indispensable. However, it is necessary to control the sample thickness to around 100 nm using a focused ion beam (FIB) milling system, and the required number of samples could not be prepared quickly even by highly skilled engineers. In order to solve this problem, we have improved the processing capacity by automating the FIB milling process. Since a wide variety of devices are being developed and manufactured in our company, it is necessary to prepare various kinds of samples according to the analysis objectives of each device. Therefore, we identified the automation conditions for each sample, and by combining the established automation functions we constructed a system that can deal with a large number of samples expeditiously. The higher throughput enables us to repeat the device fabrication and evaluation in the shorter turnaround time, accelerating the development of devices and improvement of the quality.

Battery Wiring Module Available for Laser Welding

With the recent tightening of fuel consumption/emission control regulations, Zero-Emission Vehicle regulations, and other environmental regulations, the use of electrified vehicles (electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles) is expanding. A motorized vehicle is equipped with a battery pack for powering electric motors. In the battery pack, multiple battery modules are connected to each other to produce high-voltage, highcapacity power. In the battery module, the electrodes of multiple laminated battery cells are electrically connected in series or parallel by the bus bars of a battery wiring module. A control unit is connected to the battery modules via the wires of the battery wiring module to monitor the voltage of each battery cell .

Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing System FTS3500

The OPTHERMO fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing system is a product of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. and is one of the component technologies used in infrastructure monitoring and maintenance systems. There are currently two models in the OPTHERMO lineup: the FTR3000 (a short distance model at an accessible price) and the FTR3000X (a long-distance and high-performance model at a higher price). By limiting its functions, the FTR3000 has offered the most reasonable price in Japan among equivalent products. However, it is 10 years since FTR3000 was introduced to the market, and therefore it was time for the product to be updated with functional enhancements and other changes. We have now developed a successor model, the FTS3500, which offers better performance while still maintaining the lowest price in Japan.

ALNEX (ANX Series)—High-Efficiency Cutter for Aluminum Alloys

Recently, automobile-related industries are required to protect the global environment by improving the fuel economy of vehicles. To meet the requirement, vehicle manufacturers are increasing the use of aluminum alloy and other nonferrous metal parts to reduce vehicle weight, in parallel with an increase in the production of hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. To increase the productivity of these nonferrous metal parts by improving machining efficiency, cutting tools are required to be easy to handle and feature highly effective chip evacuation, thereby reducing machining time and nonmachining time. In light of the situation, demand for lighter-weight cutting tools suitable for compact machining equipment is also increasing recently to improve the productivity per unit area of machining equipment. To meet such demand, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a polycrystalline sintered diamond (PCD) cutter, ALNEX (ANX series) , for high-efficiency aluminum alloy machining application.

High-Precision Shoulder Milling Cutter for General Purpose SEC-WAVEMILL WEZ Series

A milling cutter is a cutting tool with a cutting edge on the end face or side face. Various kinds of parts are machined by revolving this cutter. Cutting tools equipped with indexable inserts are widely used today for face milling, shouldering, side milling, slot milling, contouring, ramping, helical milling, and various other types of cutting. On the other hand, in the field of machining, the accuracy and quality required of parts are becoming stricter year by year. Accordingly, cutting tools are required to provide increasingly enhanced performance in order to be able to cut the surfaces of parts to the required roughness and quality. To realize parts of reduced weight, the quantity of parts made by machining low-rigidity thin-walled workpieces and intricately shaped difficult-to-clamp materials is increasing. As a result, the demand for cutting tools with sharper edges is increasing.

Prefatory Note: Our Endeavor in the Automotive Business to Achieve VISION 2022

The automotive industry has entered a major once-ina-century revolutionary era characterized by the connected, autonomous, shared/service, and electric (CASE) strategy. R&D efforts are strongly directed towards the next-generation motorized society. Meanwhile, global automobile sales are expected to continuously increase. At the same time, the market for environmentally friendly vehicles is forecast to grow substantially due to tighter environmental regulations to be enforced in many countries.

Future In-Vehicle Electronic Platform

Automobiles and the environment surrounding them have been rapidly changing. The value that vehicles offer will change significantly as the concept of “connected” is added to the basic vehicle functions of “driving,” “turning,” and “stopping.” In short, vehicles will evolve from a simple means of transportation to a social terminal that provides mobility and various related services. Thus, not only individual users, but also the whole society may benefit from the added value. As vehicles are used as social terminals that will create new industries in the automobile society of the 2030s, new values may arise as management resources. Therefore, it is necessary to build key technologies adaptable to the newly created social needs in addition to the functional value of conventional vehicles. This paper outlines a next-generation in-vehicle electronic platform that is currently being developed as a new key technology for the era of connected cars by integrating our social infrastructure and in-vehicle technologies.

Development for Expansion of Aluminum Wiring Harness

As the demand for the reduction of CO2 emissions from vehicles is ever increasing, lightweight wiring harnesses have been in high demand. Effective weight reduction can be expected by replacing conventional copper electric wires with aluminum electric wires. However, aluminum wires have several drawbacks such as low electrical conductivity and low tensile strength, as well as the thick oxide film on the surface and galvanic corrosion. To solve these problems, we have developed an aluminum alloy with improved electrical conductivity and tensile strength. We have also developed a unique terminal for a splice that maintains low contact resistance and sufficient wire retention force even on a thick oxide film. We have established an anti-corrosion technology that prevents galvanic corrosion by coating a new anti-corrosive onto the crimped joint of the terminal. This paper explains respective solutions in detail.

Digital Twin Environment to Integrate Vehicle Simulation and Physical Verification

In-vehicle control software has become complex, and powertrains have been diversified due to the advancement of vehicle electrification pushed by tightening environmental regulations. Nevertheless, we are required to shorten our development time and propose driver-friendly vehicle systems. We have worked on the development of mechanical and electrical co-simulation techniques as well as simulation-based quantitative evaluation methods for the trade-off between power consumption and ride comfort. To strengthen our system design and solution proposal capabilities, we have also been developing a whole vehicle simulation technique. This paper introduces our virtual car that can be connected with the real driving environment, focusing on an electric vehicle charging system.

Physical Layer Simulation Technology for Automotive Ethernet

The introduction of high-speed automotive Ethernet to in-vehicle networks has been accelerated by the increase of communication volume resulting from the spread of advanced driving assist systems (ADAS) including autonomous driving. To ensure safety, in-vehicle network products require communication reliability even under severe conditions associated with extreme heat and noise, and therefore electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance is one of the important factors. However, conventional trial EMC countermeasures require a lot of efforts and development costs to ensure EMC performance. We have developed a simulation technology to efficiently verify the EMC performance of automotive Ethernet communication systems under various conditions by constructing the physical layer model of a communication system composed of connectors, wire harnesses, and electronic control units.

Wiring Harness and Connector for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Pipe Shielded Wiring Harness, Power Cable, and Direct Connector -

Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed and produced high-voltage wiring harnesses and connectors used for electric drivetrains, and these products have been used in many hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For the past quarter century, HEVs have been actively developed to prevent global warming caused by CO2 emissions. The development of electric vehicles (EVs) that require no internal combustion engines has also been accelerated. An electric drivetrain used in an EV mainly consists of a highvoltage battery, inverters, and motors. This paper introduces our products that have been developed for HEVs and are also applicable to EVs. These products include a pipe shielded wiring harness applied to the aluminum wire between the high-voltage battery and the inverters as well as a power cable and direct connector that connect the inverters to the motors.

Reactor for Boost Converter for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The number of electrified vehicles, such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles, has been increasing rapidly due to concerns about the environment, energy savings, and rising oil prices. To promote the use of these vehicles, motorizing systems need to be reduced in size and weight while also ensuring running and acceleration performance comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. We have developed a compact and lightweight reactor, a key component for a boost converter used in the motorizing system. Using a new magnetic material and heat dissipation structure, we have succeeded in the size and weight reduction of the reactor by 10% while maintaining the same performance level as conventional reactors.

Battery Wiring Module for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

We have been producing wiring modules for high-voltage battery packs used in electrified vehicles. With the recent rapid expansion of the market, we have been promoting product development for electric vehicle (EV) applications. The number of battery cells used in an EV battery pack increases to extend the mileage, which in turn requires a reduction in the volume of battery wiring parts. For the widespread use of EVs, the safety of battery packs is another important factor. This report introduces our development on battery wiring modules for EVs.

Automotive 48-Volt Converter

In order to meet the CO2 emission target, the electrification of powertrains is accelerating in each country. The 48-V mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) can reduce CO2 emissions at lower costs than other systems, and therefore it is expected to become popular mainly in Europe. DC/DC converters installed in the mild HEV are required to supply high power with high reliability. We have developed a power control technology and achieved a high efficiency and high response compact converter. This paper introduces the features of the converter.

Rectangular Magnet Wire for Electric and Hybrid Electric Inverter-Drive Motors

A surge current caused by a high-voltage inverter-drive motor system damages the insulation performance of magnet wires. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a novel magnet wire that has a uniform micro-closed cell structure in the insulation film. This paper discusses the excellent dielectric properties of the new magnet wire.

CHAdeMO-Conformity High-Power Charger Connector Assembly for Over 100 kWClass EV Charge

There are two categories for electric vehicles charging systems. One is normal charging (AC) and the other is quick charging (DC). In recent years, the application of the latter has been expanding due to an increase in the capacity of in-vehicle batteries. In 2011, we began supplying the SEVD series as a CHAdeMO-conformity 50 kW-class quick charger cable assembly and have since delivered 27,000 units mainly in Europe, U.S.A. and Japan. Our connectors have a high reputation for superior safety and operability. We responded quickly to the CHAdeMO specification ver. 1.2, which described high output, and began shipping SEVD-11 for over 100 kW-class high power charger connectors in the beginning of 2018.

Battery State Estimation System for Automobiles

Recently lithium-ion batteries have been widely used for electric vehicles. The states of batteries should be estimated accurately for their safe and effective use. We have developed a battery state estimation system that has a parameter estimation algorithm for a battery model. This paper describes the estimation results, including the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) for each battery cell, and presents the system that transmits these results to a server.

TAB-Lead for Automotive Lithium-ion Batteries

Tab-lead is an electrical lead wire used for a pouch lithium-ion battery (LIB) that features lightweight and high heat dissipation. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has released the world’s first tab-lead in the late 1990s. Tab-leads have since been used for pouch LIBs that are applied to small electronic devices such as personal computers and cellular phones because of their high reliability. Since pouch LIBs are lightweight even if upsized for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications, they have been in high demand. In light of this, we have developed a tab-lead for automorive use that offers high permissible current and long-term reliability.

High Current SiC Transistors for Automotive Applications

As the electrification of automobiles advances, the efficiency of power devices used for electrical power control becomes increasingly important. Although silicon (Si) power devices have been commonly used, the adoption of silicon carbide (SiC) power devices, which are more power efficient than Si devices, have been accelerating. Against this backdrop, we have focused on the development of SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with trench gates for high efficiency. Our trench MOSFETs can reduce the on-resistance with the V-groove structure and achieve a high breakdown voltage due to the electric field alleviating regions implanted around the trench bottom. Here we report on our V-groove trench MOSFETs (VMOSFETs) that have a rated voltage of 1200 V and current of 200 A as required for high current automotive applications. The VMOSFETs exhibit both a low specific on-resistance of 3.4 mΩ cm2 and a high breakdown voltage of 1660 V. In addition, the VMOSFETs also achieve high speed switching due to the electric field alleviating regions that reduce the parasitic capacitance.

Traffic Management System toward Connected and Automated Vehicles Era

Traffic accidents and congestion problems have been reduced by the efforts of public and private sectors. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., a leading supplier of intelligent transport systems, has contributed to the development and installation of wide area traffic management systems. For more safety, infrastructure-vehicle cooperative driving safety support systems using sensing and wireless communication technologies are expected to be one of the best solutions to traffic problems particularly near intersections. To meet these needs in the era of connected and automated vehicles, we have been researching and developing new technologies utilizing artificial intelligence and simulations. This paper reports on our previous and future efforts for advanced traffic management systems.

Intrusion Detection System for In-Vehicle Networks

In light of the security incident of the Jeep Cherokee in 2015, where a vehicle was illegally controlled remotely using spoofing messages inserted via a public mobile network, security measures have become one of the most crucial issues in the realization of autonomous driving and connected cars. Taking security measures for each unknown cyberattack requires quick detection of attacks that happen throughout the life cycle of the vehicles. This paper introduces an intrusion detection system (IDS) to detect spoofing messages at the central gateway. Additionally, we report on the detection performance of the system using messages from an actual in-vehicle network.

A Proposal of the Device Disabler for Controller Area Network

Recently, quite a number of security attacks against Controller Area Network (CAN) have been reported. Many automotive companies are planning to adopt security countermeasures to strengthen security of their in-vehicle systems while saving the costs. This paper proposes a method to block unauthorized CAN-bus access using our enhanced CAN controller that prevents the transmission of messages from a malicious electronic control unit. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our device disabler on a CAN with Flexible Date rate buses.

Evaluation of 700 MHz Band Radio Resource Allocation Algorithm and Installation Operation of Roadside Units

In the urban area where the wireless roadside units of 700-MHz band intelligent transport systems (ITS) are densely installed, an operation method is required to install the units as many as possible by efficiently allocating limited radio resources without interference. This paper evaluates the radio resource allocation algorithm that utilizes simulation and proposes an installation and operation method devised based on the evaluation.

24-GHz Band Radar for Driving Safety Support Systems

We are developing driving safety support systems to reduce traffic accidents. One function of this system is to provide information on the presence of pedestrians on a crosswalk to a vehicle turning right at an intersection and call attention to the driver. We have developed a 24-GHz band radar to detect pedestrians as a roadside sensor, and started shipping it in March 2018. The radar features robustness against changes in weather and sunshine conditions, high performance in pedestrian detection, and a wide detection area. This paper introduces the radar and shows the result of a field test.

Millimeter-Wave Automotive Antenna Using Low-Loss Fluoro-resin Substrates

In order to realize autonomous driving, millimeter-wave radar will become more and more important. Being used in the radar, printed circuit boards (PCBs) are required to have low-loss characteristics, because transmission loss is very high in the millimeterwave band. We have been developing low-loss PCBs made of fluororesin. We evaluated fluororesin substrates and confirmed their favorable transmission characteristics. We also prototyped an array antenna for automotive millimeter-wave radar using the substrate and successfully downsized the antenna surface area by approximately 40% compared with the conventional ones in the market.

Virtual Power Plants Using Electric Vehicle and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Batteries

Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has conducted a virtual power plant pilot program jointly with Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. and Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO). In this project, 60 electric vehicles (EVs) parked at home and KEPCO were linked to the virtual power plant demonstration system, which simultaneously controls vehicle battery charge. This system is expected to enable the effective use of renewable energy, mitigating its output fluctuation. Through the adjustment of power supply and demand, we will add value to EVs.

Highly Heat-Resistant Flexible Flat Cable for Automotive Applications

The flexible flat cable has been used for electric wiring of electronic appliances. Along with the increase of electronic equipment installation in automobiles, the application of flexible flat cables has been increasing. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has successfully produced a new flexible flat cable for automotive use featuring high heat resistance up to 150°C.

In-Vehicle Application of Flexible FUREKI

Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd. started the development of the flexible wiring board “FUREKI” in the 1960s. Being light, thin, and highly flexible, FUREKI was well received by the market, and has been in high demand for the internal wiring of handheld units since the 1980s. Combining new materials and new technologies (such as connection technologies), Sumitomo Electric has added new products to the FUREKI series. This paper introduces our efforts for the application of FUREKI to automobiles.

Features and Vehicle Application of Heat Resistant Die Cast Magnesium Alloy

Since the successful development of the world’s first AZ91 alloy sheet, which has high strength and superior corrosion resistance, we started the magnesium alloy business with the AZ91 alloy sheet used for the case body of mobile electronic devices. For application to transportation vehicle parts, however, the properties of AZ91 were not sufficient and we launched the development of new Mg alloys. Recently we have successfully developed a high-temperature creep resistant Mg alloy that can be applied to automobile powertrain components through a collaborative research with the University of Toyama. The new alloy has overcome the drawbacks of conventional creep resistant Mg alloys, such as the low castability and inferior recyclability. This paper introduces major properties of the developed alloys, which are necessary for practical applications in transportation vehicle parts.

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness Analysis Technique Using a Full Vehicle Model

Automakers have launched environment-friendly and fuel-efficient cars into the market. In such cars, decreased number of cylinders and expanded lock-up range are used to improve fuel efficiency. However, particularly in a vehicle with a 3-cylinder engine and continuously variable transmission, vehicle body vibration is aggravated by the influence of suspension resonance at the start of lock-up. To propose anti-vibration products that reduce the vibration, an analysis technique that covers drivelines and suspension systems is essential. Therefore, we have built a full vehicle analysis technique for evaluating a whole vehicle. With this technique, the reduction of vibration at the time of lock-up was examined using hydraulic strut mounts and the effects were confirmed in the actual vehicle evaluation. This full vehicle analysis technique is one of the fundamental technologies for our future product development.

Lightweight Filler Neck Hose for Reducing Environmental Load

For automotive fuel piping, we have been working on the reduction of fuel permeation to comply with regulations for hydrocarbon evaporation including low emission vehicle standards in the North America. Concurrently, in order to comply with the tightening CO2 emission control, we have also been working on the reduction of CO2 emissions by improving fuel efficiency through vehicle weight reduction. For this purpose, we have promoted the replacement of rubber hoses used for filler neck piping with those made a low fuel permeation material, and the metal filler pipe with a resin pipe. The replacement to the resin filler pipe involved the development of modules that consist of filler pipes and hoses. This paper describes these development efforts.

Improvement of Noise Absorbing Thermal Conductance “Magnetic Induction Foaming” for In-Vehicle Use

The automotive sector is currently undergoing a major transformation. This structural change is called “CASE” (connected, autonomous, shared, electric), and the electrification and digitization of vehicles are advancing rapidly. Under these circumstances, we have developed a magnetic induction foaming (MIF) technique for improving the thermal conductivity of sound absorbing polyurethane foam through magnetic field orientation, and succeeded in mass production of soundproofing products capable of achieving both thermal and noise countermeasures for in-vehicle electronics products. Recently, there has been an increasing need for heat dissipation and noise reduction for large products such as electric vehicle drive motors, in addition to in-vehicle small products. This time, focusing on the heat transfer structure of MIF, the heat dissipation property was improved by 2.5 times (up to 100 times of common urethane). Applying this method, this paper finds the possibility of MIF as a soundproofing cooling device that further enhances the air-cooling performance in addition to the soundproofing effect by covering the motor case.

Humidity-Aging Resistant Steel Cord

Steel cords are widely used as reinforcing material for automobile tires. The adhesion of steel cord to rubber and long-term durability are increasingly critical factors not only in terms of fuel efficiency improvement but also the technological advancement of automobiles such as electric vehicles and automated driving. Focusing on the humidity heat resistance as an indicator of longterm durability, we have developed a ternary alloy plating with cobalt (Co) added as the third element in the brass plating of ordinary steel cord, and established its mass production technology ahead of the world. In this development, we also clarified the plating-rubber adhesion and its deterioration mechanism, enabling quantitative and quick evaluation of the effect of adhesion performance improvement. This innovative plating technology has substantially increased the durability of tires compared to conventional ones, being keenly anticipated by customers.

Diamond-like Carbon Film for Bearing Parts and Its Mass Production Technology

Active efforts have been made to create environmentally friendly products in the automobile market. Under this circumstance, parts that make up an automobile need to maintain their functions in harsh environments, requiring even higher durability than ever before. To meet this challenge, we have developed a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film that has an excellent rolling fatigue resistance for bearing parts. We also started the mass production of the DLC film coating for bearing parts by overcoming production technology challenges, and achieved both mass productivity and cost efficiency.

100 Gbps Differential Transmission Metal Cable for Data Centers

There has been growing demand for cloud servers due to the widespread use of IoT and smart devices. This has increased the demand for higher signal processing speed, namely, signal transmission speed. We already mass-produce metal cables for 40 Gbps differential transmission. We have developed a metal cable for 100 Gbps differential transmission designed for the next-generation communication protocol.

New Coated Carbide Grade AC5015S and AC5025S for Exotic Alloys Tuning

Exotic alloys such as Ni-based alloys, cobalt (Co)-based alloys, and titanium (Ti) alloys are often used for equipment and parts used in the aircraft and auto industries due to their superior heat resistance and corrosion resistance. There has been growing demand for tools for machining these alloys.

Microfracture Strength Evaluation Technique Using Nano-polycrystalline Diamond Spherical Indenter

We have developed a microfracture strength evaluation technique that uses a spherical indenter made from nano-polycrystalline diamond. The technique enables us to evaluate the fracture strength characteristics in the micro regions of diamond materials with a high accuracy, which has been difficult in the past. Through evaluation tests on various types of single crystal diamonds using the technique, it was revealed that the fracture strength of natural diamond greatly differs depending on the location in each crystal, while that of synthetic diamond is uniform with small deviations. We also confirmed that the microfracture strength of nanopolycrystalline diamond is increased through grain refinement.

Vehicle Simulation-Based Quantitative Evaluation for Power Consumption and Ride Comfort

Vehicle electrification has been proactively promoted because of environmental restrictions. At the same time, new functions, such as autonomous driving and V2X communication, have made vehicle systems more complex. As the development costs have risen following these trends, system development using simulation has come into widespread use to improve cost efficiency. We have been developing simulation techniques to identify the effects of improvements in our product performance in regard to power consumption. This paper introduces a simulation technique to verify the trade-off between power consumption and ride comfort.

Anomaly Detection by Deep Learning Named “Sense Learning”

In a visual inspection setting, quantitative and qualitative judgment is needed. To automate this particular judgment process, an algorithm that resembles human recognition ability is required. Sense Learning is our algorithm that mimics the human recognition ability using the images of non-defective products. With an autoencoder, a deep-learning-based network, the inspection AI progressively learns to reconstruct the images of non-defective products, thereby acknowledging the ideal characteristics of products. When the image of a defective product is input, the inspection AI fails to reconstruct the defective part because it has never learned the form. Based on the difference between the input image and the reconstructed image, Sense Learning detects the defective part and measures the degree of its severity.

System for Generating and Providing Semi-dynamic Traffic Information for Automated Vehicles

Level 3 or higher autonomous vehicles, which themselves control all aspects of driving, require lane-specific traffic information for safe and smooth driving. While this information is expected to be generated using probe data sent from vehicles, there are still problems such as the insufficient positioning accuracy of probe data for identifying the driving lane and the low penetration rate of probe vehicles. To overcome these problems, we have developed a system for generating lane-specific traffic information. The system uses images sent from on-vehicle front view cameras, which are in widespread use today, to identify the driving lane and the propagation model of traffic congestion to supplement the probe data.

A Study on Quantification of Risk Assessment in Security Design

For further automation and efficiency improvement of production, industrial control systems have been increasingly connected to other information systems to exchange data. Under this circumstance, establishing security measures for control systems against malware (such as Stuxnet*1) is an urgent issue. Therefore, security design has been taken into consideration at the beginning of the system development. In collaboration with the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), we have been applying security design guidelines for automobiles to control systems, aiming to improve the efficiency of design procedures without depending on personal knowledge or experience. Focusing on the risk-assessment phase in security design consisting of multiple phases, this paper proposes a quantification method optimized for the risk assessment of control devices and systems by utilizing an existing vulnerability assessment system. We report on the security design results using the method, providing a case study on a control system equipped with a data logger as the key element.

FlexAirConnecT – Dust Insensitive Multi-Fiber Connector with Low Loss and Low Mating Force –

Physical contact (PC) optical connectors are commonly used for their favorable connection characteristics. However, PC connectors have some drawbacks such as the necessity of careful end face cleaning and an increasing mating force as the number of fibers increases. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed a new multi-fiber connector that has an air-gap between its end faces. Eliminating the need for PC connection, this connector offers good optical characteristics and high reliability. This paper reports on the optical characteristics and reliability test result of the new connector.

Optical Receiver Module with Integrated 8-ch Optical De-multiplexer for 400 Gbit/s Transceivers

With the growth of cloud services that require high-speed communication, CFP4 and QSFP28 optical transceivers have been commonly used for 100 Gbit/s transmission. Along with an increase in the market need for higher-speed transmission beyond 100 Gbit/s, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published 400GBASE-FR8/LR8 as the next-generation communication standards, and the CFP Multi-Source Agreement (MSA) defined the CFP8 form factor of an optical transceiver to support 400 Gbit/s interfaces. Against this backdrop, we have developed a new optical receiver module for 400GBASE-FR8/LR8 CFP8. Using the conventional design for 100 Gbit/s, the module has an integrated 8-ch optical de-multiplexer. This paper describes the module structure, optical characteristics, and sensitivity in 26.56 Gbaud PAM4 signal transmission.

Electromagnetic Field Analysis for Next-Generation Optical Transceivers

The demand for high-speed data communication systems has been increasing to accommodate huge data communication traffic resulting from the growth of smartphone and cloud computing services via data centers. This trend has generated a strong demand for high-speed optical transceivers. To transmit electric signals without distortion, transmission lines are designed with a due consideration of characteristic impedance. Nevertheless, electric signals tend to be distorted by unexpected factors on actual circuit boards. These factors often consist of signal integrity, power integrity, and electro-magnetic interference/electro-magnetic susceptibility, which are correlative to each other. For these problems, electromagnetic field analysis plays an extremely important role. This paper describes typical contributing factors, as well as problem examples and their solutions extracted by electromagnetic field analysis.

Broadband GaN HEMT Microwave Integrated Circuit for Space Applications

We have developed a 40-W microwave integrated circuit (MIC) equipped with gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) that is functional in the L-band and S-band for satellite and rocket launch control applications. The MIC has a 10-W GaN HEMT in the front stage and a 40-W GaN HEMT in the post stage. It achieves an output of over 45 W, gain of over 30 dB, and power added efficiency (PAE) of 45% in the range of 1.0-1.7 GHz, while it shows an output of over 47 W, gain of over 30 dB, and PAE of 50% in the range of 2.0-2.7 GHz. The GaN HEMTs met all the reliability and lifetime requirements in a space qualification test. When used in a solid state power amplifier, the MIC will contribute to a reduction in the size and weight of satellites.

Coherent Receiver for L-band

As a solution to the rapidly increasing optical traffic, 100 Gbit/s transmission systems using the digital coherent optical communication technology has been adopted in high-speed and large-capacity optical transmission. Optical transceivers are required to be operable in the long wavelength band (L-band) in addition to the conventional band (C-band). Based on the design of C-band receivers, we have developed compact optical receivers for the L-band operation. This paper presents the design and typical characteristics of the new optical receivers.

High-Quality 6-inch SiC Epitaxial Wafer “EpiEra”

Power devices have been essential to significantly advance efficient electric power use mainly for a future electric network society that will use versatile energy sources such as renewable energy resources and electric vehicles. SiC power devices are expected to be a key for power conversion systems to cut back electric power loss. To achieve large chip dies used in high current ratings, the wafer size of SiC substrates has increased, requiring precisely controlled fabrication processes. The epitaxial layer used for the drift region in a device structure strongly influences the device performance, entailing to the requirement of epitaxial defects reduction as well as the precise control of doping concentration and thickness for stable chip production. We have successfully demonstrated an extensive defect-free epitaxial layer with an excellent doping concentration and thickness uniformity on a 150 mm diameter 4H-SiC substrate.

Evaluation of Insulation Materials under High Voltage by Direct Current Integrated Charge Method

Due to the development and wide-spread use of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission and its related equipment, the evaluation of the dielectric properties of insulation materials under HVDC has become important. While the evaluation of electric properties is generally carried out using different methods appropriate for their specific purposes, the authors have found a relatively simple technique that can simultaneously evaluate multiple dielectric properties of a material, such as permittivity, space charge behavior, and electrical conductivity, using the direct current integrated charge method. This paper describes the principle of the method and measurement results of low- and high-density polyethylene and polystyrene.

Overhead Transmission Line Monitoring System for Dynamic Rating

With an increase in the use of renewable energy, the problem of power system constraints in which electricity transmission is limited has become significant. One major factor of this is the restricted capacity of transmission lines. While the enhancement of the transmission line capacity is necessary to solve this problem, it requires a large amount of capital and time. Therefore, it is important to utilize existing systems to their maximum potential. For the purpose of increasing power transmission capacity of existing systems, we have been developing a real-time monitoring system for the temperature and electric current value of power transmission lines. This paper reports on the present status of our ongoing developments.

Sintered Parts Production Line Using IoT Technology

Due to technological innovation utilizing information technology (the fourth industrial revolution), major changes are taking place at manufacturing sites. Internet of Things (IoT) technology is expected to improve production capacity and efficiency through the collection and analysis of a large amount of data by networking many sensors and devices. In the automobile industry, the development of common platforms and modules has been progressing, requiring parts manufacturers to cope with demands for cost reduction in super-mass production and quality risk management to prevent mega recall. To adapt to the age of megaplatforms, we have built an innovative sintered part production line making full use of IoT technology. Based on the Sumitomo Electric Group’s manufacturing concept, Sumitomo Electric Industries Production System (SEIPS), the new production line features: (1) zoned quality control by automated inspections, (2) quality assurance in units of products using 2D codes, (3) reduction of lead time and no intermediate stock by “one-by-one production / synchronized production” through compacting, sintering, sizing, to machining, and (4) IT-based production-management and monitoring systems.

Positioning Engine for Smartphones

Sumitomo Electric System Solutions Co., Ltd. Develops and sells AgentNavi, a navigation software development kit for smartphones. AgentNavi offers route guidance to the destination together with information about traffic congestion and regulations.

Prefatory Note: Challenge for the Next-Generation Communications

Information and communication services as well as the technologies that underpin these services have been developing rapidly. We have observed such developments as a user and a supplier. This paper aims to study the trends in the information and communication market based on relevant data to understand them correctly.

Multi-Hop Wireless Network for Industrial IoT

If wireless communication is utilized to collect data in a production site, manufacturing processes can be modified more flexibly without building a new network. However, it is not easy to achieve stable wireless communication in a factory because signal strength changes frequently due to various factors such as the rearrangement of equipment and the movement of machinery and workers. Therefore, we have developed a wireless repeater and controller that automatically manage communication quality. This development will enable full wireless networks for quick and reliable data collection.

76-GHz High-Resolution Radar for Autonomous Driving Support

The development of autonomous driving has increased expectations for advanced ITS technology. To prevent traffic accidents at intersections in Japan, for example, roadside radio units transmit information about oncoming vehicles detected by roadside sensors to vehicles waiting to turn right on the opposing side. This paper describes the prototype of a 76-GHz band radar applicable as a roadside sensor. The radar adopts a multiple-frequency-stepped CPC (complementary phase coded) modulation method characterized by long-range detection without resolution degradation. The performance of this radar was verified in a field experiment.

The First 0.14-dB/km Ultra-low Loss Optical Fiber

We have been producing pure-silica core fibers that enable low-loss transmission since as early as 1980s, contributing to the development of submarine optical cable networks through continuous reduction in transmission loss and nonlinearity of fiber. We have succeeded in further reducing the density fluctuation of a pure-silica core and developed an optical fiber with a transmission loss of 0.14 dB/km.

Multi-Core Optical Fibers for the Next-Generation Communications

Communication systems based on conventional single-mode optical fiber transmission technologies may face a “capacity crunch” in the near future. To address this, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has been conducting the R&D on various types of the multicore fibers (MCFs) for the space-division multiplexed (SDM) transmission. Since the very beginning of the SDM R&D, we have continuously contributed both to revealing the behavior and characteristics of the optical properties—such as inter-core crosstalk— of MCFs, and to proposing various MCFs for practical applications. This paper reviews our MCF R&D history.

Multi-Fiber Connectors for Data Center Applications

The need for optical interconnection has been increasing at data centers (DCs) to process information for cloud computing and mobile internet services. To accommodate the need, multi-mode fiber systems will be replaced with single-mode fiber (SMF) systems. We have developed multi-fiber connectors (such as multi-fiber push-on and dust-proof connectors) as SMF optical connection solution based on high-precision molding technologies. This paper outlines our latest multi-fiber connectors for DC applications.

RF Module for High-Resolution Infrastructure Radars

We have developed a chipset consisting of a transmitter device, a receiver device, and a power amplifier by using our 3-D Wafer Level Chip Size Package technology that allows miniaturization and cost saving. Mounting the chipset to a printed circuit board, we have developed a radio frequency module for 76-GHz band infrastructure radars. The module is as small as 20 × 34.5 mm2, in compliance with ARIB standard, and meets performance requirements for radar applications.

Quantum Well Infrared Imaging Sensor with High-Sensitivity in the Wavelength Range of up to 15 µm

Infrared detectors with Type-II superlattices are attracting increasing attention due to their theoretically higher performance and lower environment impact than HgCdTe detectors. While quite a number of reports have been made on sensor development, only a few of them have discussed a long wavelength region over 14 μm, which is required for hyper-spectral imaging. Using a Type-II InAs/GaInSb superlattice, we have developed an infrared imaging sensor (640 × 512, VGA format) that functions in the wavelength range of up to 15 μm. At a temperature of 77 K and a bias voltage of -20 mV, the sensor obtained a dark current density of 3.7 × 10-3 A/cm2. The noise equivalent differential temperature (NEdT) of 0.29 K was achieved under an experimental condition using F/4 optics, a bias voltage of 0 mV, integration time of 200 μs, and temperature of 95 K. We succeeded in taking thermal images of a person.

Ultra-High-Fiber-Count Optical Cable for Data Center Applications

This paper describes a newly designed ultra-high-fiber-count (UHFC) optical fiber cable for data center applications. The UHFC cable employs Freeform Ribbon, in which fibers meet and split out in turns in a longitudinal and transverse direction, thus allowing high fiber density and mass fusion splicing. Having a non-preferential bend axis, the cable can easily be installed in spaceconstrained areas. We combined the Freeform Ribbon technology with a new cable design to significantly increase fiber density compared to conventional underground cables while retaining their advantageous features such as easy handling, identification, and mass fusion splicing.

History and Vision of Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing Technology

Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. released the TYPE-3 fixed V-groove optical fiber fusion splicer for multi-mode fibers in 1980. Over the years, optical fiber fusion splicing technology has been making steady progress with the advancement of optical fiber production technology and the development of new jointing methods. This paper looks back at the history of splicing technology and highlights the technology that marked a crucial turning point in the progress. We also discuss our perspectives on how the technology can make further headway in the future.

High-Density Optical Cabling Solution for Data Centers

Global data traffic has been steadily increasing with the spread of the Internet. High-density and high-efficiency cabling between server racks and devices has become more and more important for data centers. We have developed multifiber push-on (MPO) cassettes (PrecisionFlex) and a polarity conversion LC connector (FlexULC). This paper suggests a plug-and-play solution that eliminates the need for fusion splicing by using these new products in combination with round cords and trunk cables that use our MPO connectors (SumiMPO) for improved handling in the field.

Distributed PON Architectures for North American MSO’s Next-Generation Access

A traditional PON (passive optical network) consists of an OLT (optical line terminal) installed in a cable television headend and ONUs (optical network units) at subscriber premises (Fiber-to-the-Premise, FTTP) or a distribution point serving multiple subscribers (Fiber-to-the-Distribution-Point, FTTdp). This paper describes a new class of products Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. is introducing to assist North American MSOs (multiple system operators) to address fundamental requirements for their access networks such as distance, subscribers served per port, trunk fiber conservation, uniform operations support systems, and the cost of space, power, and cooling of equipment.

GaN HEMTs for Wireless Communication

Gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been widely used for high-power and high-frequency applications, such as cellular base stations, owing to their superior material properties. This paper describes the features and characteristics of the world’s first commercialized GaN HEMTs. Specifically, it introduces our 400-W GaN HEMT Doherty amplifier for cellular base stations and 20-W broad band GaN HEMT for fixed wireless communications. For satellite communications and weather radars, we have also developed a high-power and high-reliability GaN HEMT. These GaN HEMTs contribute to the creation of small-form-factor, light-weight, and power-efficient transmitters for wireless communication.

Integrated TOSA with High-Speed EML Chips for up to 400 Gbit/s Communication

Optical transceivers for high-speed transmission at more than 100Gbit/s have been downsized and implemented at increasingly high density. We have developed a new compact optical transmitter that consists of a low-coupling-loss optical multiplexer and four distributed feedback lasers with integrated electro-absorption modulators. This transmitter can be installed into QSFP28 to enable transmission at 100 Gbit/s up to 40 km and also used for 200 and 400 Gbit/s systems. This paper presents the design and performance of the transmitter.

Integrated ROSA with High-Sensitivity APD Chips for up to 400 Gbit/s Communication

In response to market expectations for 200 Gbit/s and 400 Gbit/s optical devices, we have developed a new compact receiver with four avalanche photodiodes and an integrated optical de-multiplexer for 40 km operating distance applications. This receiver is based on the structure of our previous 40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s receivers and employs newly developed avalanche photodiodes for high responsibility. This paper presents the design and performance of the receiver, including its receiver sensitivity in 53 Gbit/s PAM4 (Pulse amplitude modulation 4) signal transmission.

40 Gbps High-Speed Interface Cable “Thunderbolt 3”

Thunderbolt 3 is a high-speed and high-capacity input/output standard that enables bi-directional 40 Gbps transmission using a reversible USB Type-C connector. Based on Intel Corporation's technical specifications, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed Thunderbolt 3 cables by combining its flexible and durable cables and high-speed transmission technologies to be the world’s first approved vendor of Thunderbolt 3 cables. This paper presents an overview of Thunderbolt 3 cables using Sumitomo Electric’s coaxial cables.

Dual Wall Heat-Shrinkable Tubing with Hot-Melt Inner Layer

Heat shrinkable tubing with a meltable inner layer (dual-wall heat-shrinkable tubing) protects joints and connections in wiring harness connection with high adhesion, and has been widely used in electronics products and aircrafts. The application of the tubing has been extended to automotive wiring harnesses due to its easy handling and waterproof performance, and tubing that can be applied to complicated harness configuration is in high demand. To meet this demand, we have developed a new dual-wall heat-shrinkable tubing that shrinks at a low temperature and stays long. We optimized the shrink behavior and mechanical properties of the outer layer by controlling resin blending, and the flow and adhesion of the inner layer by applying the molecular design method and polymer alloy technology.

Fast switching SiC V-groove Trench MOSFETs

High-efficiency power semiconductors are becoming increasingly important for an energy-saving society. While metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are basically made of silicon (Si), silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs have been finding commercial applications due to advantages such as high efficiency owing to their material properties. We have been developing SiC V-groove trench MOSFETs (VMOSFETs), which achieve high efficiency through the combination of SiC material properties and optimized trench structures. By introducing an electric field concentration layer into VMOSFETs, we have succeeded in suppressing a gate insulation film breakdown at the trench bottom and improved the breakdown voltage. Moreover, we have realized fast switching VMOSFETs with a reduced switching loss of up to 70% by optimizing the structures and reducing feedback capacitance.

Demonstration of Amorphous Bulk Semiconductor for Nano-Structured Thermoelectric Materials

Thermoelectric generators, with which one can directly convert waste heat to useful electric power, have attracted considerable attention as one of the most efficient techniques leading to a low carbon and sustainable society. The figure of merit (ZT) of constituent thermoelectric materials is generally used as a measure for the efficiency of energy conversion in thermoelectric generators. The value has never reached a large magnitude exceeding 2, despite that ZT ≥ 4 is strongly required for automobile exhaust heat utilization systems. This large gap between the required values and obtained values let us believe that thermoelectric generators are not usable in practical applications. We need new, innovative techniques leading to a breakthrough for developing high-performance thermoelectric materials. In this study, we have developed an amorphous bulk material as a precursor of nanostructured thermoelectric semiconductors.

Evaluation of Concentrator Photovoltaic System Power Plant

Sumitomo Electric lndustries, Ltd. installed a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) power generation system in a high solar irradiation area in Morocco and evaluated its power output performance in comparison with a crystalline silicon photovoltaic (Si-PV) system. Based on the positive result, a megawatt-class CPV power plant was built in Ouarzazate, Morocco and is now operating for demonstration purposes. The CPV system is superior to the Si-PV system in energy generation per module area and effective rated power. The performance ratio of the plant has remained almost the same throughout the year, confirming its stable operation.

Thin and High-Torque Axial Gap Motor Using Soft Magnetic Powder Cores

Axial gap motors have been attracting attention as demand increases for thinner motors with a higher output. However, radial motors using laminated steel sheets remain dominant in the market, and the use of axial gap motors is still limited due to the difficulty in producing three-dimensional magnetic cores with laminated steel sheets. We have built an axial gap motor using soft magnetic powder cores that feature magnetic isotropy and high design flexibility. The motor offers high torque and cost efficiency compared with a conventional radial motor of the same size.

Coated-Carbide Grades AC8015P, AC8025P, and AC8035P for Steel Turnin

To lessen the environmental burden, lead-free, difficult-to-cut materials are increasingly used and high-efficiency dry turning is becoming popular in the automotive industry. Under these circumstances, cutting tools need to have long tool life and offer stable performance. To satisfy these demands, we have developed the new coated-carbide grades AC8015P, AC8025P, and AC8035P for steel turning. This paper describes the features and cutting performance of these products.

High-Quality Tomato Seedling Production System Using Artificial Light

We have developed a closed system for growing tomato seedlings using LEDs as the main light source. Although closed production systems reduce the risk of pest infection without using pesticides, tomato seedlings grown under artificial light for a long time are subject to physiological disorders. Our production system suppresses this problem and grows uniformly large seedlings, thereby shortening the cultivation period between seeding and harvesting. This paper describes how the system suppresses physiological disorders, while controlling air flow for uniform growth. (This research was conducted in collaboration with Chiba University.)

High-Accuracy Product Life Estimation of GaN-HEMT by µ–Raman and Numerical Simulation

High-efficiency and high-frequency GaN-HEMTs (gallium-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors) for satellites and mobile phone base stations need to assure long-term reliability. The life time of these products is estimated based on the temperature of the channel layer (Tch), with a channel length of approximately 0.2 μm, located under the gate electrode. However, the current measurement method using an infrared microscope with a spatial resolution of 4 μm is insufficient to obtain the Tch precisely. We have developed a high-accuracy estimation method that uses μ-Raman spectroscopy with a spatial resolution of 0.8 μm, and achieved an accuracy of ± 5 degrees C by the optimization of sample structures for μ-Raman spectroscopy and careful calibration. It was confirmed that the life time of our existing products estimated by this method is 20 times longer than that estimated by the infrared microscope measurement on the same Tch.

Sumitomo Electric Beamlines for Materials Characterization Using Synchrotron Radiation

Using strong synchrotron x-rays, advanced characterization can be performed for chemical-bonding states, atomic structures, and chemical reactions. We have constructed beamlines of our own called “Sumitomo Electric Beamline” in the SAGA Light Source to develop new materials and devices as well as improve existing products with advanced characterization. In our two beamlines using hard and soft x-ray, absorption spectroscopy, diffraction measurement, small-angle scattering, and photoelectron spectroscopy are performed. We began the construction of the beamlines in February 2015 and started operation in November 2016.

Regulations on and Management of Chemical Substances in Products

Regulations on chemical substances are being strengthened yearly in each country, and chemical substances contained in products such as electrical and electronic equipment are subject to regulation. In order to comply with such regulations, communicating information of chemical substances contained in products in the supply chain is necessary. For communicating information, international standards are set for electrical and electronic equipment, and construction of a mechanism for communication of information by industry groups, etc. Furthermore, in order to communicate accurate information, it is essential to manage chemical substances at each stage of design and development, purchasing and manufacturing, etc.

Evaluation of Connected Vehicle Technology for Concept Proposal Using V2X Testbed

Connected vehicles that can wirelessly interact with the environment will become popular as they support safe and comfortable driving and offer improved functionality, security, and services to passengers. We have been evaluating and testing in-vehicle devices and infrastructure equipment in a realistic environment utilizing a testbed for concept proposals. This paper describes the features of the testbed and its application to the performance comparison of intelligent transport system (ITS) radio communications and the evaluation of vehicle-to-infrastructure cooperative systems.

Ultralow-Loss Large-Core Fiber for Submarine Cables

Reduction in the transmission loss and nonlinearity of optical fibers used for submarine cables is important for meeting the evergrowing demand for telecommunication traffic. Pure silica core fiber (PSCF) has substantial advantages of low transmission loss and low nonlinearity because no dopant is added in its core. We have developed a PSCF having the highest transmission performance among commercialized optical fibers. The fiber, Z-PLUS Fiber 150 (Z+150), has been realized by improving our previous Z-PLUS Fiber 130 ULL (Z+130) in terms of both the glass quality and the mechanical performance of the protective coating. As a result, the transmission loss reduced form 0.154 dB/km to 0.152 dB/km, and the effective core area enlarged from 130 μm2 to 150 μm2. We have further confirmed an excellent manufacturability of Z+150 by the trial mass production of about 4,000 km fibers.

Coupled Multi-Core Optical Fiber Suitable for Long-Haul Transmission

Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a 125-μm-cladding coupled four-core optical fiber achieving the lowest spatial mode dispersion (SMD) and attenuation among optical fibers for space-division multiplexed transmission. The standard 125-μm-diameter cladding offers high mechanical reliability equivalent to that of field-proven standard fibers. The low SMD reduces the computational complexity of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing. The low transmission loss comparable to that of conventional ultra-low-loss fibers contributes to the increase of the transmission capacity without sacrificing the per-core capacity. Furthermore, the transmission characteristics of this coupled multi-core fiber (MFCF) were experimentally confirmed to outperform those of an equivalent single-mode fiber (SMF). The present results demonstrate that the coupled MCF is suitable for ultra-long-haul transmission systems.

Compact Optical Receivers for Coherent Optical Communication

Digital coherent optical communication technology using multi-level modulation formats has been adopted in long haul systems as a crucial solution to the rapidly increasing optical traffic. This technology is expected to further expand to metro systems, where smaller optical transceivers are required. We have developed compact optical receivers that can be installed in the CFP2-ACO optical transceivers, complying with the OIF implementation agreement for Micro-ICR. The new optical receivers have achieved a high responsivity in a small package of 12.0 × 22.7 × 4.5 mm due to an InP-based PIC that consists of waveguide PDs and a 90 degree hybrid. They also include a VOA and signal monitor PD. The digital coherent transmission was verified by the successful demodulation of 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK modulation and 224 Gbit/s DP-16QAM. This paper presents the design and typical characteristics of the compact optical receivers.

A 10G-EPON Optical Line Terminal for Replacing 1G-EPON System and Reducing Opera-tional Expenditure

We have been developing communication equipment based on passive optical network (PON) technology to promote the widespread use of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) broadband services domestically and globally. To accommodate the data traffic that has been increasing due to high-quality video distribution, we have developed a 10 Gigabit Ethernet PON (10G-EPON) optical line terminal (OLT) that supports nearly ten times higher line-speed transmission than the current Gigabit Ethernet PON (1G-EPON). This paper presents the 10G-EPON OLT that supports upcoming features of broadband video services, such as 4K and 8K resolutions, using existing optical distribution networks and optical network units (ONU) for 1G-EPON. It also reports on the lower size and power consumption of the 10G-EPON OLT, which will reduce operational expenditures.

High-Efficiency L-Band 200-W GaN HEMT for Space Applications

We have developed a high-efficiency L-band 200-W GaN HEMT for space applications. Incorporating two 100-W dies, the GaN HEMT achieves a PAE of 71% and DE of 74.6% at 1.58 GHz in CW operation, demonstrating world-class efficiency in this product range. In a space qualification test conducted under high temperature and RF overdrive conditions, this GaN HEMT showed excellent performance, satisfying all the reliability and lifetime requirements for space applications. This paper describes the feasibility of an SSPA using the GaN HEMT, which will contribute to a reduction in the size and weight of satellites.

Sputtering Target of Oxide Semiconductor with High Electron Mobility and High Stability for Flat Panel Displays

Metal oxide semiconductors are expected to be used for the thin film transistor (TFT) of large high-definition flat panel displays (FPDs) and In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO), in particular, is already being mass-produced. For high-definition 8K FPDs, we have developed a new metal oxide semiconductor with a high electron mobility. Semiconductors used as a film in a TFT are made of oxide ceramics. We sintered the new metal oxide ceramic, In-W-Zn-O, as the base material of the new metal oxide semiconductor film and studied the properties of a TFT that used the new metal oxide semiconductor. The electron mobility of In-W-Zn-O was three times higher than that of IGZO and the stability of a TFT with In-W-Zn-O was superior to that of one with IGZO. In-W-Zn-O sintered material showed a high density and a low electrical resistivity, indicating that it is suitable as a sputtering target. This development will lead to the realization of 8K FPDs.

New Coated Carbide Grades for Cast Iron Turning

Automotive components have increasingly complex designs and thin walls for weight reduction, and accordingly, high-strength, difficult-to-cut materials are used. Meanwhile, high-speed and high-efficiency machining is also required to reduce lead time. Under these circumstances, cutting tools need to have long tool life and stable performance. To satisfy these demands, the authors have developed the new coated carbide grades AC4010K and 4015K for cast iron turning. This paper describes their features and cutting performance.

High-Quality High-Productivity Manufacturing of Variable Valve Timing Parts by Green Machining

In recent years, variable valve timing (VVT) systems have been increasingly used for vehicle engines. The most common VVT is hydraulic systems because they require fewer parts and production costs are lower. However, the rising concern about the environment and demand for improved fuel efficiency have made VVT systems more complicated. We have developed a green machining technique that enables the one-chuck processing of a large number of complicated holes and lateral grooves and established a simple machining line for smart production. For quality assurance, compacts can be traced by 2D codes applied after in-line green machining.

Uniform Epitaxial Growth of Graphene for High-Frequency Transistors in the Terahertz Band

The authors have developed a novel method for the fabrication of uniform epitaxial graphene on SiC substrates. Graphene was grown on the C-face 6H-SiC substrates with a sputtered SiC film by annealing at high temperatures. Observation using Raman mapping and low-energy electron micron microscopy revealed that 95% of this graphene consisted of two layers on the fractional area in a 75×75 μm square. This uniformity is quite high compared to that of graphene grown with the conventional method without sputtered SiC films, indicating the new method is more likely to be suitable for the fabrication of high frequency wireless devices.

Mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Integrated with Distributed Bragg Reflector

To achieve a high facet reflectivity needed for the threshold current reduction (Ith) of a quantum cascade laser (QCL), we have developed an InP-based 7-μm Fabry-Perot (FP) QCL integrated with a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The DBR consists of semiconductor walls and air gaps which are alternately arranged by periodically etching the epitaxial layers of the air gap regions. The incorporation of a pair of 3λ/4 DBRs increased the facet reflectivity up to 66%, which was more than twice as high as that of a cleaved facet, and reduced Ith by 11%. This DBR-integrated FP-QCL succeeded in oscillation at up to 100°C in pulse operation and at up to 15°C in continuous wave operation, which is the first report on the operation of InP-based DBR-integrated QCLs. It also achieved sufficient output for sensing (up to dozens of mW). The DBR is expected to be used as a low-loss reflector suitable for front facet of QCLs.

Smart Rubber Active Mattress “Taiatsu Bunsan”

Sumitomo Riko Company Limited has developed the smart rubber (SR) active mattress “Taiatsu Bunsan” for preventing bedsores. Consisting of stretchable SR sensors and double-decked air cells, this mattress automatically disperses the weight of bed-ridden patients to prevent ulcers. We are aiming to provide this product to clinics in order to improve the quality of life (QOL) of the patients and support their independence. This product will also lessen burden on caregivers by reducing the frequency of postural changes. We believe the Taiatsu Bunsan helps both patients and caregivers.

Effects of Inorganic Ions for Reduction and Growth of Copper Oxides

For the quantitative characterization of copper corrosion products, the author has developed a new voltammetric method that uses a strongly alkaline solution (6 M KOH + 1 M LiOH) as the supporting electrolyte. Using this method, he investigated the growth mechanism of copper oxides (i.e., Cu2O and CuO). When copper was heated with no adherent ions supplied, both Cu2O and CuO formed and grew. However, they showed different growth mechanisms when pre-immersed in salt solutions, and heated under high humidity. Cu2O grew selectively when copper was pre-immersed in LiCl and LiBr solutions, most likely due to Li+ ions permeating into the Cu2O layer and continuing proportionation (Cu + CuO → Cu2O). On the contrary, CuO grew at the early stage of heating when copper was pre-immersed in a KOH solution presumably because of the high OH– concentration in the water layer deposited on the copper surface.

Prefatory Note: Sumitomo Electric’s Efforts in Developing Its Environment & Energy Business and the Present Status of Research & Development Activities

Confronted with global warming and other environmental issues that have become tangible as a result of rapidly growing energy demand, mainly in developing countries, expectations are raising for stable and safe supply of environmentally friendly electric power and other energy sources. Under such circumstances, the environment surrounding electric power and energy is changing dynamically. In particular, expansion of power generation/transmission/distribution networks is being promoted on a global basis, use of renewable energy is increasing, and enhancement of the reliability of electric power systems is required in response to an increase in renewable energy consumption.

Sumitomo Electric’s Activities for New Power System Business

Amid the global changes in the fields of environment and energy, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has started new business for energy systems and services. This paper explains the paradigm shifts that the energy field has been going through, and introduces the Company’s efforts in response to the shifts, including its organizational changes as well as the development of new products and technology such as vanadium redox flow batteries and concentrative photovoltaics.

Ni Alloy Laminated High Strength Bi-2223 Wire

Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed and commercialized a high-strength DI-BSCCO Type HT-NX wire. This wire is reinforced with Ni alloy tapes and undergoes residual axial compression after lamination. The wire has a critical tensile stress of 400 MPa at 77K. The new wire structure successfully reduced the splice resistance without sacrificing the mechanical properties. This wire is highly useful for nuclear magnetic resonance and other high field magnetic applications.

Development and Demonstration of Redox Flow Battery System

High expectations have been placed on rechargeable batteries as a key technology to power system reliability associated with introduction of an increasing volume of renewable energy, as well as efficient power supply and successful business continuity planning. We have developed a redox flow battery system that is safe with a long service life. A demonstration proved its applicability to multiple requirements from electric power companies and other businesses. This paper describes the system, demonstration results, and our effort to reduce the price.

CHAdeMO Quick Charger Connector with Excellent Operability

Electric vehicles can be charged by either AC normal charge or DC quick charge. For the latter, a CHAdeMO DC quick charger was developed in Japan and has been widely used in Japan, Europe, and the US. We developed a DC charger connector that meets the CHAdeMO specifications, and have since supplied over 15,000 units of it and other connectors including those for vehicle to home applications. Our connectors have a good reputation for their operability and safety.

Titanium-Manganese Electrolyte for Redox Flow Battery

Large-scale batteries play an important role in the effective use of renewable energy like wind and solar power. Among various battery technologies, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer high-speed response, independent design of power and energy, high safety, and thus have attracted more attention than ever. All-vanadium RFBs are the most mature technology and have been used in practical applications. As the prices of renewable energy power generation continue to decline, cost reduction of the battery system has become the major issue. In order to reduce the cost, many efforts have been made to develop a low cost electrolyte. We focused on a low cost manganese material, and developed a Ti (IV) and Mn (II) mixed aqueous electrolyte, and applied it to a Ti-Mn RFB. This paper briefly introduces development of electrolyte research and the characteristics of the Ti-Mn electrolyte.

String Monitoring Unit for Megawatt Solar Power Plants

While an increasing number of megawatt solar power plants have been constructed, some of them have already been facing problems with degradation in power output due to initial failures, aging solar panels, or external factors. We have developed a string monitoring unit that uses the power line communication (PLC) technology. These units monitor individual strings of hundreds of thousands of solar panels in real time without the need for wiring additional cables. We installed the units at a megawatt solar power plant, and successfully detected irregularities in power generation by analyzing data collected from the units.

High Corrosion Resistance Conductor for Overhead Transmission Lines

The deterioration of overhead transmission lines in Japan has been continuing and transmission failures caused by corroded aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) conductors have increased year by year. From the viewpoints of securing reliable power supply and prolonging the life of ACSR conductors, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a high-corrosionresistance ACSR conductor jointly with the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO). The conductor is highly resistant to sea salt because of the high corrosion resistance offered by aluminum-manganese alloy clad steel wires used in the steel core part. The corrosion resistance of the conductor is about 1.6-2 times higher than that of the conventional ACSR/AC conductor. Using conventional materials for the aluminum wires, this product offers high economic efficiency with a minimal cost increase. Since 2012, the conductor has been installed into many transmission lines in KEPCO’s area and other regions in Japan.

Dynamic Cable System for Floating Offshore Wind Power Generation

Floating offshore wind power generation has attracted increasing attention because of the deep water levels around Japan. We have developed a dynamic cable system that stably transmits electric power from floating offshore wind turbines to a substation on land, and tested it in a demonstration project led by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. During the demonstration, no problems occurred with the cable system, and a subsequent investigation found no remarkable deterioration. These results confirmed that the cable system withstands mechanical stress caused by the large excursion of hybrid spar-type floaters. We have also developed a method to analyze the behavior of the cable in the sea to optimize the cable installation design and ensure longterm reliability.

XLPE Cable for DC Link

The cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable has been used for DC transmission lines. We have been developing the DC XLPE cable for a few decades, and proved its quality and reliability through the research and development process. In 2012, we delivered the cable to Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. for its 250-kV DC transmission project, making it the world's highest voltage DC XLPE cable at that time and the world's first one to be applied to a line commutated converter system. Following the project, we successfully completed a pre-qualification test for a 400-kV DC XLPE cable. Currently, we are working two new projects: the 250-kV transmission project of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. and the 400-kV transmission project of NEMO Link Ltd. Our DC XLPE cable has an allowable continuous conductor temperature of 90 degrees Celsius, which is equivalent to the conventional AC XLPE cable, and withstands polarity reversal of voltage. This cable will meet the various needs of DC transmission that are expected to increase in the future.

Optimum Operation Control of Distributed Energy Resources Using ENERGYMATE-Factory

Amid the changes in electrical power supply in Japan, Nissin Electric Co, Ltd. has been developing the Smart Power Supply Systems (SPSS) as a solution that integrates various distributed energy resources for power saving and stable power supply. The core system of SPSS, ENERGYMATE-Factory, enables the optimized control of energy provided by the combination of an electrical substation, one of the company’s major products, and various distributed energy resources such as solar power generators, cogeneration systems, and grid energy storages. This paper describes the ENERGYMATE-Factory and its features, and introduces a practical-scale demonstration conducted at the Maebashi plant.

New Power Conditioner for Large-Scale Power Systems

It has been three years since the Feed-in Tariff (FIT) for renewable energy was introduced in Japan. While a reasonable number of solar power systems have started operation in Japan, functional improvement and cost reduction are still required for overseas solar power plants. We have provided 100-660 kW solar inverters for domestic use, contributing to the installation of megawattclass solar power generators. Drawing on the expertise, we have developed a new solar inverter to meet the needs of overseas customers.

Improvement of Islanding Detector Using Interharmonics Current Injection Method and Its Applications

When distributed power sources, such as renewable energy sources, are interconnected to electric power grids, anti-islanding protection devices are necessary. In 2001, we developed an islanding detector using the interharmonics current injection method, and since then it has been widely used. This paper introduces the principle, fault ride through (FRT) capability, and applications of the detector.

Power System Analysis for Solving Problems with Expanding Introduction of Renewable Energy Sources

The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent electricity crisis, introduction of feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, and the electricity system reform caused huge changes in the Japanese power system. These changes include the acceleration of installing renewable energy equipment, the enhancement of interconnections among regional power electric utilities, and the increase of the new power suppliers resulting from the full liberalization of retail power sales. This paper introduces Nissin Electric’s activities to solve power quality problems caused by the above-mentioned changes, from a viewpoint of the power system analysis.

Aluminum-Celmet―Aluminum Porous Metal with Three-Dimensional Consecutive Pores

Celmet is a material that has a high porosity and a large surface area. Sumitomo Electric Toyama Co., Ltd. has offered nickel and nickel-chromium alloy Celmets. There has been a demand for aluminum porous meatal due to advantages such as the light weight, thermal conductivity, and high voltage resistance. Therefore, we worked on the development of Aluminum-Celmet and succeeded in its production. This paper presents the physical properties, machine properties, and electric characteristics of the Aluminum-Celmet. We also report on the application of Alminum-Celmet to a lithium ion battery.

Copper Recycling Technique Using Electrochemical Processes

The recent growing awareness of the environment and interest in resource saving have raised the importance of metal recycling. As an electric wire maker that handles a large quantity of copper, we strive to promote copper recycling proactively and have developed a copper recycling technique using electrochemical processes for small-scale operations. We made the process as eco-friendly as possible and succeeded in continuously recycling electric wire scrap into high-purity copper.

Magnet Wire with Enhanced Tolerance for High Frequency Voltage

Overvoltage, resulting from the application of a high frequency voltage, and its subsequent steep surge on an inverter-fed motor can significantly damage insulated systems due to partial discharge. Therefore, magnet wire with a high tolerance for surges and low dielectric permittivity is needed. This paper describes our new magnet wire coated with a porous insulator for enhanced surge resistance.

Flexible High-Voltage Cable for HEV/EV

The advancement of hybrid electric vehicle/electric vehicle technology has led to an increase in the size of high-voltage cables used as power cables, and accordingly their flexibility is strongly required for easy handling. Our flexibility simulation revealed that the elastic modulus of an insulator contributes to the cable flexibility more than the structure of a conductor. We found that polyolefin polymers are ideal insulation base-resins because the softness of polyolefin can be controlled by the ratio of the crystal region and amorphous region, which changes with the amount of co-monomers. Using an anti-oxidant agent, flame retardant, and polymer cross-linking, we have developed a new flexible insulation material that meets JASO/ISO standard. Going forward, we will strengthen our product lineup of flexible cables.

History and Future Prospects of Magnet Wire Development

In 2016, it was 100 years since Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. first produced its enameled wire. The magnet wire, coated with an insulation film, has been used in various products including electrical components, household appliances, and electrical conductors, and supported the industry. This paper outlines the history of magnet wire from development to commercialization over the century and introduces our major products. We also discuss the direction of future wire development.

History of Air Spring Development for Shinkansen Trains

Air springs are part of a soft damping suspension system that provides both softness and damping characteristics by utilizing the compressibility and flow resistance of air. They were first used on railways about 60 years ago. The subsequent and continuous advancement of air spring technology is a result of the incorporation of air springs into Shinkansen trains and the acceleration of R&D activities in overcoming various challenges associated with increasing train speeds. To reduce the environmental impact of high-speed trains, the weight of each car was reduced dramatically. In particular, adoption of bolster-less bogies reduced car weight. Together with such technological innovations, the functions of air springs also changed remarkably. To make the Shinkansen competitive with aircraft by increasing both speed and ride quality, various new functional units were developed. Such units include the horizontally nonlinear air suspension system and the car-body tilting system with built-in air springs that enables trains to travel at higher speeds on curved tracks. A project aimed at further increasing train speed has been launched for several train lines. We will continue our R&D efforts to develop air springs that will enable trains to run safely at speeds exceeding 320 km/h while providing a truly comfortable ride.

Mechanical and Electrical Co-simulation Technology for In-Vehicle Power Systems

Car manufacturers and suppliers are offering new systems, such as 48 V power supply or automated driving systems, for 2020 and beyond. Since these systems are closely related to automotive power systems, their deployment makes changes to the power architecture. To analyze requirements for power components, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has been developing in-vehicle simulation technology that helps to investigate the relationship between vehicles and their components in performance. This paper introduces the technology to analyze the effect of power components on fuel economy, based on our mechanical and electricalco-simulation.

High-Strength Aluminum Wires for Low-Voltage Automotive Engine Wiring Harnesses

The weight of wiring harnesses has been increasing with the growing number of systems used in vehicles in recent years. For the purpose of reducing their weight, aluminum instead of the conventional copper has been getting popular as a wire conductor. Conventional Al alloys, however, cannot be used for small gauge wires (0.35 mm2 and 0.5 mm2) or in the engine compartments due to their insufficient conductor strength. For this reason, we have developed a stronger Al alloy that has a conductor strength equivalent to or stronger than that of copper, and successfully manufactured a high-strength Al alloy wire for the first time in the industry. Applying it the 0.35 mm2 wire used in engine compartment, we started its mass production in April 2015. The target properties of this alloy were a tensile strength of 220 MPa and conductivity of 50%IACS. Based on the age-precipitated 6000 series Al alloy, additive elements and their content were specified. The aging conditions were determined by examining the precipitation status of Mg2Si intermetallic compounds. With this approach, we achieved a tensile strength of 250 MPa and conductivity of 52%IACS, both of which exceed the targets.

Terminal Plating to Lower Insertion Force of Multiway Connectors

Recent advancements in automotive electronic control systems have led to an increase in the numbers of electronic control units and circuits, and accordingly the number of the necessary connectors and terminals has risen. Meanwhile, multiway connectors require high insertion force, which makes the assembly operation difficult. Therefore, demand has grown for terminal plating that lowers the insertion force. We have developed a tin (Sn) alloy plating technique to replace the widely-used Sn plating. The Sn alloy plating restrains abrasive wear during connector matching and successfully reduces the insertion force.

10G-EPON Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Repeater Expands Transmission Distance up to 60 km

We provide advanced broadband technologies and passive optical network (PON) equipment to the market. Recently, we have developed a repeater for 10 Gigabit-Ethernet PON (10G-EPON) systems. Installed between an optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network units (ONUs), the repeater significantly expands the data transmission distance from the conventional 20 km to 60 km. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology enables its connection to the OLT using an optical fiber and 8 channel support. This paper describes the performance of the repeater and the key technology in relaying upstream burst signals.

E-band 1 W-class GaAs PHEMT Power Amplifier MMIC

E-band wireless communication systems are expected to be used for fiber extension in the fixed network in order to support internet data transmission increased by the introduction of 3G/4G, LTE (Long Term Evolution), and other mobile backhaul services. The E-band communication system works in the 71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz bands, enabling high data rate transmission of 10 Gbit/s or more. This system requires power amplifiers of an output power of 0.5 W (27 dBm) or higher to transmit high-order modulation signals over a long distance. This report introduces an E-band 1 W (30 dBm) class amplifier MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) incorporating a stabilization design and GaAs PHEMT (pseudomorphic-high-electron-mobilitytransistor) technology.

S-band 600 W and X-band 200 W High-Power GaN HEMTs for Radar Transmitters

High output power gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been developed for S-band and X-band radar applications. The fully internally matched S-band GaN HEMT exhibits a minimum output power of 600 W, a minimum power gain of 12.8 dB, and a drain efficiency (DE) of 60% at 2.7–2.9 GHz for radar applications such as an air traffic control radar. The fully internally matched X-band GaN HEMT exhibits a minimum output power of 200 W, a minimum power gain of 9 dB, and a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 38% at 8.5–9.8 GHz for radar applications such as a marine radar and weather radar. The output power of these GaN HEMTs is the highest in the market, contributing to reduction in the size, weight and power consumption of radar transmitters.

Control of Nano Structure by Multi Films for Nano-structured Thermoelectric Materials

Thermoelectric generators, with which one can directly convert waste heat to useful electric power, have attracted considerable attention as one of the most efficient techniques leading to a low carbon, sustainable society. The figure of merit ZT of constituent thermoelectric materials is generally used as a measure for the efficiency of energy conversion in TE generators, and its value has not reached a large magnitude exceeding 2 for the last half century, despite that ZT ≥ 4 is strongly required for automobile exhaust heat utilization system. This large gap between the required values and obtained ones strongly let us believe that a thermoelectric generator is not usable in practical applications. We need to employ new, innovative techniques leading to a breakthrough for developing high-performance thermoelectric materials. In this study, we tried to control nano-structured particles in amorphous thermoelectric materials so as to drastically improve the thermoelectric properties by means of molecular beam epitaxy for obtaining high performance thermoelectric materials.

High-Strength and High-Conductive Material to Replace Beryllium-Copper Alloys

Copper alloys are widely used in the automotive, electronics, and various other sectors. Among these alloys, beryllium-copper alloys need to be replaced with other materials due to concerns over their effects on human health and the environment. However, they have excellent properties that have slowed the replacement efforts. From this view point, Sumitomo (SEI) Steel Wire Corporation has developed a new steel wire by covering the surfaces of the steel core with a thick layer of copper. This wire provides the strength and yield resistance of steel wire and the conductivity of copper. Moreover, by using different percentages of steel core and copper, the material’s properties can be designed with ease. In fact, evaluations have revealed that the wire has mechanical properties comparable to or better than those of beryllium-copper alloys. This paper presents the results of mechanical property tests conducted on the wire.

New PVD-Coated Carbide Grade AC1030U for Precision Turning

In recent years, automotive components have become smaller and lighter due to the trend of energy saving and fuel efficiency. Accordingly, a wider variety of materials, including those difficult to cut, have been used for these components. Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Corporation has developed the new coated carbide grade “AC1030U” by applying the new physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating technology “Absotech Bronze” and the new chip breaker “FYS type” that has excellent chip control and high wear resistance in fine finishing. AC1030U with high cutting edge quality and high wear resistance is a general grade used for precision turning. The new grade and chip breaker can satisfy the demand for cost reduction in precision machining for various materials such as alloy steels, carbon steels, stainless steels, heat-resistance steels, and pure iron.

High Quality Agricultural Production Support System by Smart Sand Cultivation Device “New Sandponics”

New Sandponics (NSP) is a unique cultivation device that uses sand as the primary medium, and additionally employs a floor irrigation method in the early Sandponics. Using only 10% of the sand medium volume used in the early Sandponics, NSP reduces the device weight and maintenance costs. The floor irrigation method has enabled us to control water and fertilizer supply depending on the growth phase of crops for high yields and quality. This paper reports on our efforts in increasing the yield of tomatoes by using a new medium with air-rich structures and also presents our attempts at IoT-based agricultural production using Sandponics.

Evaluation System for Chest Compression Training “Shinnosuke-kun”

Sumitomo Riko Company Limited has developed flexible capacitive pressure sensors, the Smart Rubber (SR) Sensor series, by drawing on the polymer-compounding technology it has developed over the decades. Applying this technology, we have developed an evaluation system for cardiac massage (chest compression) training, Shinnosuke-kun. This system gives real-time feedback on the chest compression depth, tempo (rhythm), recoil, and pressure point during chest compression training. The SR sensor can also evaluate the compression depth with the training mannequin placed on soft materials such as a mattress. We believe that the widespread use of Shinnosuke-kun will contribute to increasing the number of people who can conduct cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and thereby raise overall survival rates.

On-vehicle Compact and Lightweight Multi-channel Central Gateway Unit

With the rising number of electronically controlled devices used in vehicles, the demand for ECUs (electronic control units) has been increased, and it is now required to configure an in-vehicle LAN (local area network) that connects multiple networks. In the past, multistage networks were formed using a two-channel gateway ECU that connects two different networks, making vehicle communication design complicated. We developed a central gateway ECU that is equipped with six network interfaces to relay communication data between channels. This central gateway ECU secures the independence of respective systems, resulting in a simple communication design even with many ECUs being connected. The central gateway ECU, the main ECU for the in-vehicle LAN, allows Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. to offer vehicle infrastructure systems in combination with wiring harnesses and junction boxes.

Silica-Based Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Their Applications

Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs) are promising platforms for a wide range of applications utilizing fiber nonlinearities, such as broadband light sources, fiber lasers, amplification, all optical processing, sensors, metrologies, and spectroscopies. The key challenges for their practical applications are tailoring the chromatic dispersion, including higher-order dispersion, as well as high nonlinearity, low fiber attenuation, and low splice loss to standard single mode fibers. This paper outlines our silica-based HNLFs, which are designed specifically for desired applications, featuring HNLF with a longitudinally uniform zero dispersion wavelength and HNLFs with optimized fourth-order dispersion. We also demonstrate an accurate chromatic dispersion measurement and present two types of optical frequency combs that use our silica-based HNLFs as application examples.

125-μm-Cladding 8-Core Fiber for Short-Reach Optical Interconnects

To cope with the growing data traffic in the short-reach interconnects used for parallel processing in supercomputers and data centers, optical interconnect technologies for broadband high-density transmission are intensively researched and developed. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. developed, for the first time, a multi-core optical fiber (MCF) that has eight cores compatible to the standard single-mode fiber in O-band with low inter-core crosstalk in the standard 125-μm-diameter glass cladding. The developed MCF is suitable for the short-reach interconnects and enables low-distortion signal transmission in O-band. The standard 125-μm cladding provides high mechanical reliability equivalent to the standard optical fibers and enables the use of conventional technologies in cabling and so on. A high-density fiber optic interconnect cable fabricated with the 12 pieces of the developed MCF realized good optical properties and robustness against the mechanical and thermal stresses.

Waterproof Optical Connector with Multiple Interfaces

With the development of mobile networking along with the spread of machine-to-machine communication and the internet of things concept, optical communication devices have been used in various environments including outdoors. This has created the need for optical connectors that can withstand harsh environments while supporting multiple interfaces. To meet this demand, we have developed a waterproof optical connector that is compatible with multiple interfaces. Coming with the IP68 rating, the connector is highly resistant to dust and water, and thus suitable for outdoor use. The product can also be connected easily to SC, LC, and MPO (multi-fiber push on) connectors, as well as to SFP (small form-factor pluggable) transceivers.

+18 dBm High-Power Tunable Laser Modules for Digital Coherent Optical Communication Systems

With the rapid increase in communication traffic, digital coherent communication technology has spread, particularly for trunk networks. For the application of the technology to metropolitan area networks and data center interconnection, compact and high-power light sources that enable high-density mounting in communication units are required. We have developed a microintegrable tunable laser assembly (Micro-ITLA) using a tunable distributed amplification chirped sampled grating distributed reflector (TDA-CSG-DR) laser that achieves the industry’s highest output power of +18 dBm.

10G-EPON System Featuring High-Speed and High-Capacity Layer 3 Switching

We have been providing advanced broadband technology and internet access equipment to the market. FSU7100 is our latest product that aims for the next generation high-speed transmission service. We offer 1G-EPON (Ethernet passive optical network) cards, 10G-EPON cards, and aggregation switch cards for FSU7100. This paper reports on the specification parameters of the common framework of sOFIA (Sumitomo Electric optical fiber access system integration architecture), line cards, and switch cards. In addition, as a software feature that enables operators to replace DOCSIS (Data over Cable Service Interface Specifications) systems with PON systems at low cost, DPoE (DOCSIS provisioning of EPON) is introduced.

High Sensitive Gas Sensing with Low Power Consumption Quantum Cascade Lasers

Gas sensing using Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) as a light source is expected to offer a high sensitivity, a short measurement time, and a good portability compared to conventional sensing methods. We have studied low power consumption 7 μm wavelength QCLs for realizing a portable sensing apparatus. The performance of our Distributed Feedback (DFB) QCL in gas sensing was evaluated by measuring the mid-infrared absorption spectrum. In this evaluation, a multi pass type gas cell was used for gas absorption, and for sweeping lasing wavelength of QCLs, the injection current of the DFB-QCL was swept. First, we measured the absorption spectrum of the room air, and found the absorption lines of water and methane to agree well with our simulation results. We then evaluated the sensitivity of the apparatus using a methane gas of a certain amount of concentration, and achieved a high sensing sensitivity of 17 ppb at a DFB-QCL power consumption of less than 3 W.

InP-DHBT Fabricated on High Heat Dissipation SiC Wafer Using Atomic Diffusion Bonding

The drastic increase in internet traffic has created the demand for ultra-high speed optical fiber communication systems that can transmit at a speed of over 400 Gbit/s. InP-based double heterojunction bipolar transistors (InP-DHBTs) with a high-speed transmission capability and high breakdown voltage are suitable for integrated circuits (ICs) that drive the semiconductor lasers or optical modulators in these fiber communication systems. In general, InP-DHBTs must be driven under a high current density for high baud rate operation. However, such severe operating conditions eventually accelerate the degradation of InP-DHBT characteristics because of self-heating, leading to shorter life of ICs. This paper introduces our trials to fabricate InP-DHBTs on a SiC wafer with high heat dissipation. Atomic diffusion bonding, which allows metal-metal bonding under room temperature and low pressure conditions, is used to fabricate the InP-DHBTs on a SiC wafer. The fabricated device reduces thermal resistance by more than 40% owing to the high heat dissipation of the SiC wafer.

Next-Generation Nanoporous PTFE Membrane

Porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was invented by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. using its stretching technology, and has been widely used for POREFLON microfiltration membrane or other products. Porous PTFE filters are particularly advantageous for the filtration of chemicals such as strong acid or alkali and, therefore, commonly used in the manufacturing process of semiconductor wafers, flat panel displays, and other electronic components. To enhance the cleanliness, PTFE membranes need to have smaller pores. This paper describes our new technology for generating nano-sized pores, alternative to the conventional stretching technology, and the resultant nanoporous PTFE membrane.

Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of 3,300 V Full SiC Power Module by New Equivalent Circuit

Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices are promising candidates for high power, high speed, and high temperature switches owing to their superior properties. We have been developing SiC based 3,300 V class metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and schottky-barrier diodes (SBDs). Stray inductance in the module and the great current changing rate with high speed switching may cause excessive voltage overshooting. Although equivalent circuits are effective for stray inductance analysis, previous equivalent circuit studies covered only a partial area of the entire module. This paper proposes a new method for the dynamic characteristics analysis using the precise equivalent circuit of the entire module.

Application of Ni Porous Metal to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

High thermal oxidation resistance and gas diffusion performance are required for the current collectors of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The authors have developed a Ni-Sn porous metal that has a high thermal oxidation resistance and gas diffusibility. In this work, the authors have evaluated the applicability of the Ni-Sn porous metal as the cathode collector of an SOFC in terms of the long-term durability, area-specific resistance, and power density. The Ni-10wt% Sn porous metal showed a weight increase of 0.14 mg/cm2 and an area-specific resistance of 0.017 Ωcm2 after withstanding a temperature of 600 °C for 3,000 hours. Thus, it is concluded that the Ni-Sn porous metal can be applied as the cathode collector for SOFCs operating in an intermediate temperature range. The authors have also tested the applicability of the Ni-Sn porous metal and the conventional Ni porous metal as an anode collector. Both the Ni-Sn and the Ni porous metals exhibited favorable compression characteristics and high power densities, equivalent to a Pt mesh, indicating that these metals are ideal as anode collectors, particularly at 800°C.

High-Thermostability Nd-Fe-B Magnet Formed by Binderless Net-Shaping

The recent needs for safe and secure automobiles and energy-saving appliances have increased the demand for high-efficiency motors and high-sensitivity sensors. While the performance of these devices largely depends on the intrinsic properties of the magnet materials used in such devices, it is also important to improve the flexibility and durability of the magnet in order to form them into complicated shapes and use them in high temperatures or severe environments. Although resin-bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets are known for their good formability, they lack in durability due to the poor heat resistance of resin. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a new process that enables the net-shaping of plastic deformable magnet powder and created a resin-free bonded Nd-Fe-B magnet with a high heat resistance.

Epitaxial Wafer of Multiple Periodic Layer for Midwavelength Infrared Detectors with High Sensitivity

Midwavelength infrared (MWIR: 3-5 μm) detectors with high sensitivity and fast response are strongly demanded for hazardous gas detection and satellite observation. In recent years, InAs/GaSb superlattices (SLs) have been a subject of intense study as the absorption region of the MWIR detector. Although organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) is advantageous for mass production compared with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), the number of reports on the OMVPE growth of InAs/GaSb SLs is limited. In this work, we fabricated high-quality 100-period InAs/GaSb SLs on GaSb substrates by OMVPE. MWIR detectors with 100-period SLs showed a dark current density of 2 × 10-4 A/cm2 at -50 mV and 77 K, and an external quantum efficiency of 15% at 3.5 μm and 20 K. These results indicate that the InAs/GaSb SLs could offer excellent structural and electrical properties for high-performance MWIR detectors.

Prefatory Note: Evolution and Future of Cemented Carbide,the Origin of Our Powder Metallurgy Business

In the 1920s, the electric wire factory of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.'s Osaka Works introduced fast wire-drawing equipment in anticipation of a substantial improvement in productivity. However, in the drawing process, the die*1 through which the copper was pulled was made of steel. The factory faced the problem of reduced die life due to the low wear resistance of steel. The dies could not withstand the high speed of the equipment and quickly wore out. Consequently, the operators needed to stop the equipment frequently for die replacement. The operating rate of the fast equipment remained low, contrary to expectations.

Practical and Potential Applications of Soft Magnetic Powder Cores with Superior Magnetic Properties

Recently, environmental awareness has been growing worldwide, and energy saving vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles (HVs), and clean energy generated by solar and wind power are being promoted. Electrical operating systems and electric power devices are necessary for these applications, and electromagnetic conversion parts that are comprised of cores and windings are the key parts for them. While laminated steel and ferrite core are conventional materials for the cores, for downsizing these systems and devices and improving their power efficiency, we have developed a soft magnetic powder core (SMPC), which exhibits superior magnetic properties in a high frequency region and a high degree of forming freedom. Moreover, we have put it into practical use as an HV reactor, etc. The SMPC is produced by press-forming powder with an insulator film. In order to improve its magnetic performance, the modification of magnetic particles composition and the elimination of impurities are effective. In addition, the development and modification of insulation films, coating technologies, and additive materials such as lubricants and binders are also important. Our Fe-Si-Al alloy core exhibits superior characteristics of iron loss.

History of Development of Cemented Carbides and Cermet

Cemented carbide was first commercialized by our company in 1928 for use in wire drawing dies. It has since been developed as a base material for cutting tools. First, titanium carbide was added to make the tools suitable for steel cutting, and then the ACE layer technology was developed in order to toughen the cemented carbide substrate. Zirconium was added to cemented carbide substrates in response to user requests for efficient machining. Meanwhile, cermet, base material that consists of a hard titanium phase and was originally created for use in jet engines, was developed for cutting tools because of their low reactivity with steel and fine cutting surface. Although toughness was an issue with cermet, it was solved by nitrogen doping. The subsequently developed surface hardening technology further improved their toughness and wear resistance, and thereby cutting performance. This paper details the history of the development of Igetalloy cemented carbide and cermet.

Innovative Ultra-hard Materials: Binderless Nano-polycrystalline Diamond and Nano-polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

We have succeeded in the production of novel ultra-hard materials: single-phase (binderless) nano-polycrystalline diamond and nano-polycrystalline cubic Boron Nitride (cBN). These nano-polycrystals were synthesized under static ultra-high pressure and high temperature using a new method, direct conversion sintering. The new hard materials consist of fine grains of several tens of nano-meters without containing any secondary phases or binder materials. They thus have high hardness and high strength that surpass those of single crystals and conventional sintered compacts containing binder materials. The fine microstructure containing no secondary phases and the outstanding mechanical properties of these new hardmaterials are promising for applications to next-generation high-precision and high-efficiency cutting tools.

History and Future of High-Fatigue-Strength Steel Wire for Automotive Engine Valve Spring

Valve springs are one of the automobile engine components that require a very high degree of fatigue strength and heat resistance. With the recent trend toward lighter cars and smaller engines, oil tempered wire used for valve springs needs to be smaller in diameter and higher in strength. About 80 years ago, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. started the production of piano wire, and has since been working hard to develop new materials and techniques for manufacturing steel wire for valve springs. This paper describes the history of the development of high-strength steel wire and its future.

Industrialization of Tungsten Recovering from Used Cemented Carbide Tools

Tungsten is a chief ingredient of hardmetal materials. Since its sources are concentrated in China, the supply of tungsten is highly volatile, and therefore, a reduced dependence on China would stabilize the hardmetal business. In view of this, the Sumitomo Electric Group focused on recycling tungsten from used hardmetal tools. The group developed an efficient recycling technology with a low environmental load, and industrialized the technology in a joint research project. Despite various challenges that came up on the way to industrialization, the group succeeded in establishing the technology as a business. This paper mainly describes the developed technology, which reduces toxic emissions and removes impurities. Our goal now is to recycle even low grade tungsten scrap, most of which is currently being disposed, and thus contribute to a more efficient use of rare metals.

Evolutional History of Coating Technologies for Cemented Carbide Inserts - Chemical Vapor Deposition and Physical Vapor Deposition

Coated cemented carbide inserts have well-balanced wear resistance and chipping resistance compared with uncoated inserts made of other materials. Consequently, the shipment of coated cemented carbide inserts is increasing with each passing year. Coated cemented carbide inserts account for over 70% of all the inserts currently in use, and this trend seems to continue for many years to come. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. started research and development on coated materials 50 years ago, and has since been working hard to advance the innovation of chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition coating technologies. This paper looks back at 50 years of history of coated materials development and introduces new materials.

Application of Chip Formation Simulation to Development of Cutting Tools

The simulation of chip formation processes was started as a method to construct cutting theories or understand cutting phenomena and has recently been used for actual applications. On the other hand, it is still difficult to simulate all cutting processes with sufficient accuracy because cutting processes are conducted under high temperatures and pressures at high deformation speeds. In this paper, we explain the history of the chip formation simulation and its application examples for cutting tool development. We also discuss what to consider when using the simulation.

History and Applications of Diamond-Like Carbon Manufacturing Processes

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a hard material with lubricity and chemical stability. Amid the growing awareness of environmental problems in late years, DLC films have been used to reduce the fuel consumption of automobiles by reducing friction loss. The films are also used as a coating of cutting tools for aluminum alloys that have been widely used for automobile weight reduction. Nippon ITF Inc. provides DLC films most suitable for the customer needs by utilizing its equipment, systems, and expertise. This paper introduces the history of DLC manufacturing processes and DLC films that we have commercialized.

The Latest Trends in Oil Pump Rotors for Automobiles

Internal gear rotors are powder metallurgy parts widely used in automobile engine oil pumps, automatic transmissions (ATs), continuously variable transmissions (CVTs), and hybrid vehicle transmissions. In the 1980s, Parachoid rotors were developed and started to be used in automobile oil pumps to meet the growing needs for smaller and lighter oil pumps that achieve improved fuel efficiency. Recently, Megafloid, Geocloid, and Parachoid EX rotors have been developed to meet the needs for even smaller oil pump rotors to reduce friction loss. This paper introduces the development and evolution of these oil pump rotors.

Application of Laser Hardening Technology to Sintered Parts

In recent years, industrial application of laser hardening has been made possible due to technological advancements, resulting in lower equipment cost of laser oscillation machines. Laser hardening utilizes surface hardening technology through laser irradiation and generates less heat than induction hardening. Another advantage of laser hardening is its ability to harden the local areas that are not accessible by induction hardening. The use of this technology on sintered parts will lead to new applications due to its inherent advantage in near net shape manufacturing. Laser hardening was performed on various types of sintered materials, and the parts were evaluated for process optimization. Laser hardening was also performed on products in various shapes that are difficult to harden with other surface hardening techniques. The application of this technology for a wide range of products was also investigated.

Progressed Sinter Brazing Technology Enables the Production of Complex Shaped Parts

Powder metallurgy is a processing method whereby green parts are compacted using dies and sintered .It offers equivalent strength as cast iron and superior design flexibility, and produces near-net shaped parts at lower costs as it reduces the need for machining process. For these reasons, powder metallurgy has expanded its market as a result of VA*1 applied to cast iron parts. However, while compaction tooling offers design flexibility in two dimensions, it has difficulty in producing parts with height (in the Z-axis direction) due to ejection constraints. We have introduced bonding technology to compaction tooling using powder metallurgy and achieved design flexibility in three dimensions. This paper describes the characteristics of bonding parts and details assurance methods for bonding areas in our current production.

History and Future Development of Heat Spreader Products

Diamond cutting tools are used for various applications in nonferrous metal processing as they have superior sharpness and excellent wear resistance. Ultra-precision diamond cutting tools made of single-crystal diamond are used for processing resin molds for optical disk pickup lenses and smartphone camera lenses, as well as optical prism molds for liquid crystal panels. These tools are also used for the ultra-precision processing of laser reflecting mirrors in optical components. Meanwhile, a fiveaxe cutting machine that can operate in the 1-nm level was developed. To be employed for this machine, high-precision and small diamond cutting tools are required. This paper describes the characteristics of the ultra-precision diamond cutting tool (UPC) made of synthetic single crystal diamond named “SUMICRYSTAL.” It also introduces the applications of UPC in the ultraprecision processing of the optical components that Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Corporation produces.

Single-Crystal Diamond Cutting Tool for Ultra-Precision Processing

Diamond cutting tools are used for various applications in nonferrous metal processing as they have superior sharpness and excellent wear resistance. Ultra-precision diamond cutting tools made of single-crystal diamond are used for processing resin molds for optical disk pickup lenses and smartphone camera lenses, as well as optical prism molds for liquid crystal panels. These tools are also used for the ultra-precision processing of laser reflecting mirrors in optical components. Meanwhile, a fiveaxe cutting machine that can operate in the 1-nm level was developed. To be employed for this machine, high-precision and small diamond cutting tools are required. This paper describes the characteristics of the ultra-precision diamond cutting tool (UPC) made of synthetic single crystal diamond named “SUMICRYSTAL.” It also introduces the applications of UPC in the ultraprecision processing of the optical components that Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Corporation produces.

Highly Durable Ultra-high Strength Prestressing Strand System with Large Diameter

Sumitomo (SEI) Steel Wire Corp. developed an epoxy coated and filled 15.7 mm ultra-high strength prestressing (UHSP) strand consisting of 7 wires. The UHSP strand is approximately 20% stronger (2,230 MPa) than the conventional strand (1,860 MPa). Through its experience and expertise, the company has recently developed large-diameter UHSP strands: a 29.0 mm 19-wire strand and 17.8 mm 7-wire strand. These strands prevent delayed fracture by the epoxy or high-density polyethylene coating, and thus contribute to high-durability concrete bridges. This paper describes the features of the 29.0 mm 19-wire UHSP strand with pre-grout tendons and epoxy coated and filled 17.8mm 7-wire UHSP strand.

Highly Selective Determination of Copper Corrosion Products by Voltammetric Reduction

A new voltammetric method using a strongly alkaline electrolyte (SAE; i.e., 6 M KOH + 1 M LiOH) as the supporting electrolyte was developed for the quantitative characterization of copper corrosion products. Conventional chronopotentiometric method using 0.1 M KCl as the electrolyte has been most frequently used for selective determination of copper oxides (Cu2O and CuO) formed on copper surfaces. However, there have been two serious problems. One is the conflicting view regarding the order of reduction of the oxides, and the other is the poor separation between Cu2O and CuO. In 2001, the author successfully employed SAE to achieve a perfect separation of the reduction peaks of the two oxides. It was then found that the oxides were reduced in SAE according to a thermodynamic order, i.e., “CuO → Cu2O.” It has also been shown that the developed method with SAE can be applied to analyse various corrosion products including Cu2S, Cu(OH)2, and also patinas. Use of the developed method has allowed researchers to clarify the mechanism of the atmospheric corrosion of copper.

High-Precision 32 Mechanically Transferable Ferrule for Single-Mode Fiber

Optical interconnection has been increasingly required for data center applications and high performance computers. The standardization of the new multi-fiber connector for 40/100G Ethernet, 32 multi-fiber push on (MPO), is progressing to support high-speed, high-bandwidth applications. We have developed a 32 mechanically transferable ferrule for a singlemode fiber, which requires higher precision than a multi-mode fiber. Using the ferrule, the 32 MPO connector operated at an optical insertion loss of below 0.37 dB at random mating when applying 9.8 N compression springs.

Compact Optical Transmitter Module with Integrated Optical Multiplexer for 100 Gbit/s

High-speed and small-sized transceivers are strongly required to support the rapidly growing internet traffic. The CFP (100G form-factor pluggable) using four-wavelength LAN-WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) is now widely used. To increase the transmission capacity of a line card, CFP4, a very small transceiver, has been standardized. To support this trend, we have developed a 100Gbit/s compact optical transmitter module for CFP4 and integrated a compact low-loss optical multiplexer, a quad-channel laser diode driver, and four laser diodes. The module achieves clear eye openings at low power consumption. This paper describes the design and basic characteristics of the module.

Compact Optical Transceiver “CFP4” for 100 Gbit/s Network Systems

"One of the keys to enhancing optical networking capacity is increasing the number of optical transceivers on a network card. A new compact optical transceiver called “CFP4” has been developed for 100 Gbit/s systems. Because of a compact integrated optical transmitter and receiver, the size of the transceiver is less than 1/6th in comparison with the conventional 100 Gbit/s CFP transceiver. Its power consumption is less than 5.3 W at any operating case temperature by leveraging the multi-channel shuntdriving technique. The small size and low power consumption contribute to the expansion of the transmission capacity of the network card. The transceiver complies with IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) standards and CFP MSA (Centum gigabit Form factor Pluggable Multi-Source Agreement) specifications. The CFP4 transceiver supports the same management interface as the CFP transceiver, thus making it possible to reuse existing firmware. Additionally, the CFP4 transceiver newly implements in-service firmware upgrading. This paper describes the superior optical and electrical properties of the transceiver as well as some of the design features."

Ultra-Compact MPO Connector with Excellent Handling and Bending Strength

This paper describes a new ultra-compact multi-fiber push-on (MPO) connector for data centers that are increasing rapidly in number with the expansion of data traffic. In these data centers, many devices, such as switches, servers, and storage units, are connected with metal wires and optical fiber cables. For flexible cabling, the structured cabling system (SCS) has been introduced, and the MPO connector is the key device for a high-density and large-scale SCS. Our user-friendly round-cord-type MPO connector supports gender change and polarity change.

Flexible Printed Circuit with High-Temperature Long-Term Reliability

The flexible printed circuit (FPC) is commonly used in electronic equipment including portable devices. Due to its thinness and lightness, the FPC is being increasingly used for LEDs and in-vehicle applications. For these uses, however, the major problem is long-term reliability at high temperatures: whereas the FPC needs to be heat resistant up to 100°C for use in electronic devices, LEDs and in-vehicle applications require a higher resistance up to 150°C. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed an adhesive with high heat resistance and thus created an FPC that withstands up to with 150°C.

Flexible Flat Cable with Low-Profile, Easy-Bonding Interconnection

Connectors are widely used to connect flexible flat cables (FFCs) with printed circuit boards (PCBs). In recent years, demand for a direct connection of FFCs with PCBs has been increasing due to the downsizing of electronic devices such as wearable components. An anisotropic conductive film (ACF) can be used for such a connection, however, there exist some difficulties in the bonding operation and the shelf life. We have developed a low-profile, easy-bonding interconnection that eliminates the need for connectors and is highly reliable. This achievement was made possible with our original conductive paste and highresolution printing technologies.

Ultracompact RGB Laser Module Operating at +85℃

We have developed a novel ultracompact RGB laser module with a wide operating temperature range. RGB laser chips, photodiode chips, a thermistor, and optical components are mounted on a thermo-electric cooler on a base mount. The base mount is hermetically sealed in an 11 × 13 × 5.7 mm metal package, from which high-quality stable collimated laser beams are emitted. Operation at +85°C was difficult with conventional RGB laser modules because the output power of laser diodes (LDs), especially red LDs, dropped at high temperatures. However, the thermal capacity was lowered by mounting LDs on a chip, thus enabled control of module temperature at a wide range of -40°C to +85°C with a Peltier cooler. The temperature is controlled at a high reply speed of less than 4 sec.

Advantages of Concentrator Photovoltaic System in High Solar Radiation Region

Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are promising power generation systems for their high outputs per module active area and rated power compared with crystalline silicon photovoltaic (Si-PV) systems. In a field test conducted in Morocco, where solar radiation is high, our CPV system demonstrated approximately 2.5 times higher output power per module active area and 1.3 times higher output power per rated power than a Si-PV system under the condition of direct normal irradiation of 7.9 kWh/m2/day. We have developed a tracker that faces the ground during the night, thus preventing soil or sand from accumulating on the glass surface of the CPV module and contributing to high power generation.

Viscoelastic Rubber Dampers for Cable Racks

Cable racks for electrical wiring in buildings and factories have received a lot of damage during earthquakes compared to those in seismic structures because they are non-structural materials. We investigated the vibration characteristics of the cable racks by shaking test tables in actual use conditions. We then optimized the damping structure of the racks to enable them to hold wires tightly and prevent damage effectively. We also examined the workability of the rack structure for existing buildings.

Tissue-Homogenized Material for High Reliability PCB Drills

These days, printed circuit board (PCB) drill tends to be longer and smaller in diameter as the advanced miniaturization and high integration of electric components require smaller holes. In addition, an increasing number of substrates are overlaid for efficient processing. Such drills are easy to be bent and broken, and accordingly the hole position accuracy decreases. To prevent such property degradation, we thoroughly investigated conventional products and discovered that the tissue homogenization of cemented carbide is the key. Through the review of raw materials and optimization of production processes, we succeeded in the development of the high reliability PCB drill material “ZF20A,” thus improving the hole position accuracy and breakage resistance.

Carbon Materials with Nano-sized Pores Derived from Carbides

"Materials that have a nanoscale pore structure show specific characteristics in absorbing raw materials or ions. This paper presents evaluation results of nano structure carbon materials that were obtained by treating carbide in a chlorine atmosphere. We generated the nano porous structure by processing SiC, TiC, and Al4C3 in a chlorine controlled atmosphere at over 1,000°C. With carbon derived from TiC and Al4C3, graphite structures were formed, and sub-nano pores and crystal growth reduced with increasing treatment temperature. In contrast, SiC-derived carbon did not form a graphite layer structure and maintained subnano pores even at high temperature of 1,400°C. With this process, we can form porous carbon materials with various characteristics by using different raw materials and temperatures. These materials can be used for a wide range of applications such as gas absorption and electricity storage."

Security Authentication System for In-Vehicle Network

One of the main concerns for the security of in-vehicle data is spoofing messages on the in-vehicle network. Controller Area Network (CAN) is the most extensively embedded network protocol in vehicles. In the last decade, security attacks in vehicles have been increasing and have been reported in several papers. Therefore, security measures are expected that meet the requirements of real time and cost constraint for in-vehicle control network. In this paper, we propose centralized authentication system in CAN with improved CAN controller. Our experimental results demonstrate that our proposal method is effective on real in-vehicle network environments.

Deterioration Analysis of Automotive Connectors Used in High Mileage Vehicles

Automotive electronics have developed significantly in recent years. This trend has increased the number of connectors used, has promoted multi-way connectors, and has required that connector reliability be secured. For the development of highly reliable automotive connectors, it is important to understand the deterioration state of connectors that are actually used in vehicles. In this study connectors were collected from high mileage vehicles (one with 100,000 km mileage, another with 150,000 km mileage) and their deterioration state and possible deterioration factors were investigated. The results showed that the deterioration of terminals progresses in proportion to mileage, but the deterioration level was not on the level that leads to insufficient reliability. In addition, from the observation results of collected terminal surface, the main promoter of deterioration was determined to be fretting wear. Based on this determination, the number of fretting cycles that is equivalent to 100,000 km in mileage was estimated by comparing with the fretting wear test on the bench. As a result, the number of fretting cycles was extremely smaller than expected and its level was sufficient to keep the reliability of connectors.

Estimation of Long-Term Change in Physical Property of Optical Fiber Coating Considering Effect of Humidity

Our team has developed a degradation model considering the effect of humidity on Young’s modulus of primary coating in the optical fiber, i.e. in situ modulus (ISM), and also established an estimation method for the long-term change in ISM based on the model. This method allows the estimation of ISM degradation at arbitrary conditions of temperature, relative humidity and duration. The derived contour profile of standard degradation duration, which is the duration estimated for ISM to reach a specific retention value by the degradation, and the equation of equivalent conditions are useful tools for the estimation of long-term change in ISM.

Single-Mode Multi-Optical-Fiber Lensed Connector Enabling Dust Insensitive and Low Mating Force

We have developed single-mode-fiber (SMF) lensed connectors operable with small mating force and insensitive fine dust on their end faces. 24 SMF lensed connectors utilizing an MT connector technology have been successfully fabricated. The beam is expanded by a graded-index (GI) fiber lens array with a waist diameter of 52 μm, and the spring force in the mating condition can be reduced to 3.3 N, which is about one sixth of that for a 24-MPO connector. The optical fibers and lenses are precisely aligned with a pair of guide pins and holes made by high precision molding technologies. Their average and maximum insertion losses (ILs) are less than 0.7 dB and 1.6 dB, respectively. These have been the best results for singlemode multi-optical-fiber lensed connectors reported so far.

Millimeter-Wave Low Noise Amplifiers Suitable for Flip-Chip Assembly

The E-band (71–86 GHz) is highly expected recently, because of the available wide frequency range, to support backhaul systems for cell phone and mobile communication systems at much higher data rate. The performance and cost of the E-band wireless equipment strongly depend on not only the available devices but also the assembly form. Sumitomo Electric Device Innovations, Inc. (SEDI) and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. have newly developed so called threedimensional wafer level chip size package technology (3-D WLCSP) in order to mass produce microwave and millimeterwave devices and also assemble them simply in the flip-chip fashion. In this paper, we present a low noise amplifier WLCSPMMIC and some of its design detail in comparison with conventional wire-connected planar low noise amplifier MMIC.

Low Capacitance Gate Process for E-Band GaN HEMTs

Gallium Nitride (GaN) is superior in breakdown voltage and RF performance and is suitable for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Since wireless communication using millimeter-wave E-band (70–80 GHz) features wide bandwidth and large capacity, this system has been expected to function as backhaul communication. Therefore, we decided to develop E-band GaN HEMTs. The HEMT we aimed to develop required exclusive high frequency compared to that of current products that use mainly micrometer-waves (up to 16 GHz). So we had to remarkably improve RF performance. We chose InAlN as a barrier of GaN HEMTs for high transconductance and developed low capacitance gate process, a key technology of RF performance improvement. To reduce gate capacitance (Cgs), Y-shaped gate process with short gate length of 100 nm was developed. With this process, we have obtained extremely low Cgs of 0.58 pF/mm and the current gain cutoff frequency of 110 GHz and realized high RF performance E-band GaN HEMTs.

An X-Band 300-Watt Class High Power GaN HEMT Amplifier for Radar Applications

A high-output power and broadband GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) has been developed for X-band applications. The device consists of 2-dice of 14.4-milimeter gate periphery together with input and output 2-stage impedance transformers. The device exhibited saturated output power of 310 W with power gain of 10.0 dB over the wide frequency range of 8.5–10.0 GHz, operating at 65 V drain voltage under pulsed condition. In addition, the highest saturated output power reached 333 W with power gain of 10.2 dB at 9.0 GHz. This is the highest output power GaN HEMT ever reported for X-band.

Cobalt Alloy Wire for High-Current Reed Switches

Recent years have seen increases in electronically controlled system equipment and electric current capacity. Therefore the demand for switches capable of handling high current is rising. Mercury reed switches have been used for high-current switch until now. Since mercury is a substance of concern, mercury reed switches have been changed to reed switches in which mercury is not used. However, when a temperature rises largely as energization progresses by Joule heat effect, lead wires lose their ability to carry magnetic flux, and reed switches become less sensitive. Due to these problems, reed switches were not used for high-current switches. We have developed cobalt-nickel-iron alloy wire for high-current switches that demonstrate excellent characteristics similar to the conventional alloy lead wire. The new alloy wire suppresses heating due to energization and has high Curie temperature, i.e. less susceptibility to lose magnetic characteristics. The reed switch using the new alloy wire is expected to be applied to LEDs in automobile stop lamps.

3.3 KV SiC Power Module with Low Switching Loss

Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices are promising candidates for high power, high speed, and high temperature switches owing to their superior properties. We have been developing SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) of 3.3-kilovolt class. The fabricated SiC power module successfully reduced switching losses to one-third to that of the conventional Si IGBT module. This paper evaluates the performance of a full SiC module compared to the conventional one.

Energy Management System (sEMSA) Achieving Energy Cost Minimization

We have developed an energy management system “sEMSA,” which optimally controls multiple power sources based on mathematical programming in customer premises. sEMSA realizes energy cost minimization by newly developed “optimal planning of power sources” and “real time control.” In addition, this system automatically regulates grid incoming power corresponding to the power company's demand requests. We have completed field tests of sEMSA at Sumitomo Electric Yokohama Works and another company's factory. sEMSA for factory use will be released in 2015.

Air Springs for Railways Available for Very Cold Environments

The increase of urban population in recent years results in increased traffic, whereas the interest in environment and energy issues is growing. With the advantage of transporting a larger number of passengers with lower CO2 emissions and consumption energy than automobiles and aircraft, railways are attracting international attention. Railway systems have been constructed around the world and being extended into cold regions such as European countries and China in recent years. Thus, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a new air spring for railways designed for cold region transportation. This new air spring successfully operates in very cold environments without sacrificing general properties. The key technology of this new product is the rubber compound formulation technology for diaphragm, which enables operation at a very low temperature with high flexibility.

Development of a Friction Spot Joining Tool for 980 MPa Tensile Strength Steels Joining

Car manufacturers have been increasing the use of ultra-high tensile strength steels with strengths exceeding 980 MPa. This is to improve collision safety and reduce vehicle weight, thereby reducing CO2 emissions. Due to their high carbon content, these steels cannot achieve sufficient joining strength when joined using the current resistance spot welding technology. To achieve high joining strength in high-carbon content steels, we focused on the friction spot joining (FSJ) method, a solidphase joining method that employs the frictional heat of the joining tool to soften and ultimately join the sheets through a plastic flow process. FSJ has already been commercialized for the joining of aluminum sheets, but its poor tool life has prevented its application to steel sheet joining. In order to make the FSJ method practically applicable to steel joining, we developed a cemented carbide tool base material with good resistance to breakage, plastic deformation and thermal cracking, a PVD coating that provides hardness and oxidation resistance, as well as a tool geometry. We also determined appropriate joining conditions to reduce tool wear. By integrating all these elements, we have successfully developed an FSJ tool with superior tool life (7,000 spots) for ultra-high tensile strength steel joining.

Transparent Waveplate (Retarder) of ZnSe for High Power CO2 Lasers

Laser processing machines are utilized in various industrial applications such as cutting, welding and drilling. To improve their performance and avoid unstable processing caused by reflected laser beam from processed work, a λ/4 waveplate (phase retarder) is required. The phase retardation mirrors (circularly-polarized mirrors) have been used conventionally, but there are severe constraints such as a polarization azimuth angle and an angle of incidence of linearly polarized beam in designing beam delivery systems. We have developed a new transparent ZnSe λ/4 waveplate by adopting prism shaped substrates and optimized optical coating films free from above constraints. The developed waveplate for 9.6-micrometer laser has a transmittance of 98.0% and phase shift of 87.6 degrees, and the practicability of the 400-watt continuous wave CO2 lasers are confirmed. Moreover, it contains no thorium or cadmium, it is exempt from regulations for radioactivity and RoHS. Our newly developed waveplate is expected to be utilized in various fields.

New High-Speed Precision Steel Core EDM Wire with New Alloy Coating (SUMISPARK Gamma)

In recent manufacturing processes for fine parts and semiconductor industries, wire electric discharging machining (EDM) is suitable for the precision machining of cemented carbide molds. Against the backdrop of customer request for processed products with higher quality, electrical discharge machining electrode wire has been expected to exhibit higher performance, such as high-speed machining, high precision, and high strength. Sumitomo (SEI) Steel Wire Corp. has developed discharge machining electrode wire “SUMISPARK Gamma.” This electrode wire is coated with the new alloy γ-phase brass on the surface of the steel core. The excellent discharge characteristics and processing condition settings appropriate to the new alloy have achieved high-speed processing and high-accuracy cutting. Furthermore, with one of our core technologies (High-carbon steel wire drawing technologies), we have succeeded in increasing the strength of the steel core. These developments have made it possible to suppress breaking of the electrode wire, increase the wire tension during processing, and suppress the vibration of the wire, thereby allowing precision machining. In this paper, we describe the features and performance of SUMISPARK Gamma.

“AquaGreen” Photosensitive Water-Wash Flexo Plate to Meet the Environmental Needs of the Printing Industry

"The printing market is changing dramatically, and by the year 2020, it is estimated that it will have shrunk by about 3% annually. However the printing and printing related manufacturers are working on the expansion of their market and “Environmental friendly” is regarded as an important keyword. Until now, a large quantity of organic solvents has been used for conventional printing processes. In view of such situation, the Japan Federation of Printing Industries introduced in 2001, the “Green Standard” that compels the printing industry to work on the reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Since 2009, Sumitomo Riko Company Limited has been selling the environmental friendly Water-Wash Flexo Plate that is suitable for solvent-free ink printing in Europe and the United States. Afterwards, we began to improve high quality printing and started marketing “AquaGreen” as the “Water-Wash Flexo Plate and Waste Water Recycling System” for Japan. This Water-Wash system enables us to reduce VOC emissions during the whole process of printing."

Rotational Cleaning Filter for Ballast Water Treatment System

Our ballast water treatment system, ECOMARINE, has a unique rotational cleaning (RC) filter for pretreatment followed by treatment with ultra-violet or electrolysis chlorine. The RC filter can remove above 99.999% of large plankton from sea water and make constant flow-rate filtration over 100 hours without differential pressure rises. This paper explains the RC mechanism and the effect of cost-cutting for the system.

In-situ XAFS Analysis for Fuel Electrode Catalysts of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

The intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) is one of the promising candidates for the clean power supply. In this study, we used the in-situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement techniques to solve the following two problems in the IT-SOFC development. One is to explore highly active fuel electrode catalysts that dominate the SOFC output power. We measured the reduction rate of the catalysts, since it has a strong correlation with the catalyst activity. Using the simple transmission mode XAFS technique, we evaluated Ni-, Co-, and Fe-based catalysts alone without assembling into SOFC. Our systematic exploration found that annealed pure Ni shows higher reduction rate than Ni alloys. The same trend has been confirmed for Co. In contrast, pure Fe has shown a poorer performance compared to Fe-Ni and Fe-Co alloys. The other problem is to investigate how the support by electrolytes, which is necessary in fabricating SOFC, affects the activity of the catalysts. For this purpose, we also used the in-situ XAFS analyses. Our analyses clarified that the support by electrolytes slightly lowers the activity of pure Ni and Co, whereas it increases the activity of pure Fe.

Prefatory Note: Group’s Electric Products Shaping the Future through New Technologies

The Sumitomo Electric Group, based on its core business of electric wires and cables that stemmed from the former Sumitomo copper business, has developed many unique products of wiring materials, raw materials, and parts and components in response to the needs of electronics market. The Group has continued developing new technologies and products that meet the demands of the times, such as compact, lightweight, environment-friendly, flame retardant, heat-resistant, or high-speed transmission products. The results are evident in various applications from goods familiar to us in our daily life, such as smartphones and tablet PCs, to highly advanced devices such as medical, automotive and aircraft equipment.

Thinner Flexible Printed Circuits with Nano-conductive Paste

Recently, the miniaturization and high functionalization of electronic devices have been progressing increasingly. Therefore, flexible printed circuits (FPC) are also required to be thinner and to realize finer pitch pattern formation. Regarding interlayer connection technology, a key technology for these factors, we have developed a new interlayer connection technology with our original nano-conductive paste, “paste via technology,” an alternative to traditional plating through hole technology (PTH). The newly developed technology allows formation of interlayer connection part with no increase of copper thicknesses associated with PTH, thereby enables production of thinner FPCs with fine pitch formation. Now we have started mass production of these FPCs. This paper describes our novel “paste via technology.”

Thin Flexible Printed Circuit Supporting Transmission Rate from 1 to 10 Gbps

Due to the increasing demand for high speed communication in electronic equipment, rapid improvement is observed in data transmission rate through interface and wireless communication device. Particularly in the mobile device such as mobile phone and tablet PC, thinner and lighter FPC is required. In such high speed transmission field, flexible printed circuit (FPC) has been applied in place of co-axial cable. From this kind of circumstance we have started the development of high speed FPC. We have verified the transmission performance of the in-house developed FPC supporting USB 3.0 and 4G-antenna by optimizing FPC structure and material, thereby demonstrate the application possibility of the FPC in the high speed transmission field.

Flexible Flat Cable for High-speed Data Transmission

Flexible flat cable is widely used for internal wiring in the electronic devices due to the advantage of its flat shape for highdensity wiring compared with the wire harness. Increasing of electronic equipment processing large volume of signals at high speed accelerates the demand for a flat cable that transmits signals in high speed with low loss. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has already developed and manufactured flat cables suitable for high-speed data transmission that conforms to the LVDS technology. To meet the market needs for higher transmission performance, the company has succeeded in producing a new flat cable. This cable consists of polyolefin based low dielectric loss adhesive and shows excellent transmission property.

Direct Attach Cable with Micro Coaxial Wire for Data Center

In data centers, direct attach cables with twinax wire have been used to date in order to avoid defects such as skew. However these cables have drawbacks of being thick and hard. In the background of a recent trend of the rack highly dense with switches and servers, which is common in many data centers, there is a growing need for thin and flexible cable that provides better wiring operation and heat dissipation for intra-rack wiring of up to 3 m. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. developed novel thin and flexible direct attach cables (SFP+ and QSFP+) by using the advanced micro coaxial wire technology cultivated through information appliance products.

The Wireless Feeding Flexible Printed Circuit Which is Available for the Curved Surface Mount

"The miniaturization of electronics appliances has been restricted with conventional antennas that are made of magnet wire coils and have poor flexibility. To address this challenge, we replaced magnet wire coils with flexible printed circuits (FPCs) by utilizing our original 3-dimensional wiring technology for the first time in the industry. This improved flexibility of the antennas and enabled size reduction. Our new product enhances the functionality of electronics appliances by offering cordless charging capability or water- and dust-proof properties. Having these advantages, this product is expected to be used in a variety of fields where the equipment need to be smaller and lighter such as wearable devices, health-care and industrial equipment."

3-Dimensional Module for LED Lighting Having Wide Light Distribution

One of the advantages of flexible printed circuit (FPC) is that it can keep various shapes due to its highly flexible nature. By using this advantage, the light distribution property can be changed in a light-emitting diode (LED) lighting using LEDs with high directivity. However, the low thermal conductivity of FPC had considerably limited its application to LED lighting. In order to solve this challenge, we developed a high heat diffusion structure that greatly improves FPC’s thermal conductivity and a gluing technique that enables 3-dimensional constitution of FPC. Thereby we made it possible to realize an LED module in which the FPC controls light distribution property with high heat diffusion. This newly developed technique is also applicable to high output LED.

Fast Recovery Performance of Vertical Schottky Barrier Diodes on Low Dislocation Density Freestanding GaN Substrates

For the realization of a “low-carbon society,” there is an increasing demand for high efficiency power conversion. Gallium Nitride (GaN) is highly anticipated as a semiconductor with high potential for power devices. We developed vertical GaN Schottky barrier diodes on free-standing GaN substrates and demonstrated their high breakdown voltage and low on-resistance. In this paper, we demonstrated the advantage of GaN SBDs in terms of switching characteristics and longtime reliability.

Module Wire Harness with Sound Absorbing Function

In accord with recent trends of environmental consideration and pursuit for comfortableness of hybrid vehicles have been popular. Simultaneously, higher functionality in vehicles requires increasing number of electrical components. Such vehicles mount sound absorbers in every corner in the vehicle for silence. These hybrid vehicles and luxury vehicles increasingly adopt high performance sound absorbers. On the other hand, as in-vehicle electrical components increase, the number of parts to manage are also increasing at car plants. Thereby, functional integration for reduction of parts is enhanced by modularization. We developed modularization technology with wire harness and sound absorber. The technology realized reduction in both components to manage and work process at plants, and has been adopted at major car manufactures.

High Voltage Battery Wiring Module Corresponding to Changes in Number of Battery Cells

We have developed “battery wiring module” for high voltage batteries of hybrid vehicle and started mass production of the modules as our first product group. The product is adopted by Honda Motor Co., Ltd. and mounted to the new model ACCORD/FIT HYBRID. The battery wiring module is a component having a function of connecting high voltage battery cells that are power source for a hybrid vehicle in series, and incorporates terminals and harness to detect the voltage between these cells. Parts equipped with the similar function are required in other eco-friendly vehicles, including electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The product further improves workability and versatility for customers in addition to the basic required performance, safety electric connection and insulation between ambient conductive materials. Followings are explanation of its advantages.

Ultra Low-loss Pure Silica Core Fiber

To keep up with the exponential growth of demand for internet traffic, large capacity transmission systems applied digital coherent technologies have begun operating recently. The major challenge in such systems is to improve optical signal-tonoise ratio (OSNR). In order to improve the OSNR, optical fibers with low transmission loss and large effective area (Aeff) are in strong demand. This paper reports on a pure-silica-core fiber (PSCF) with the record-low loss of 0.149 dB/km, which is the first fiber having a loss less than 0.150 dB/km at 1550 nm. The development of Z-PLUS Fiber ULL (Aeff = 1 12 μm2) and Z-PLUS Fiber 130 ULL (Aeff = 130 μm2), both of which have an extremely low transmission loss of 0.154 dB/km on average, is also described. Exhibiting the highest fiber figure-of-merit (FOM), they will be suitable for high capacity and long haul submarine transmission systems applied digital coherent technologies.

New Direct Core Monitoring Fusion Splicer TYPE-71C+

With a rapid progress in optical fiber network construction all over the world, fusion splicer users are increasing particularly in newly industrializing countries. They require a fusion splicer with easy operation and high maintainability in any operational environments. We have developed a new core alignment fusion splicer “TYPE-71C+.” It reduced by 43% in size and by 34% in weight compared with the current model and improved in performance under more harsh environments. It achieves 20 seconds of total splice and heat cycle time, which is faster by 55% than the current model. Moreover, TYPE-71C+ is the first and only fusion splicer in the industry that features wireless LAN function. We have also developed “SumiCloud” system, which manages fusion splicers via internet.

Compact 224-Gbit/s Modulator Modules for Digital Coherent Optical Communication Systems

Digital coherent technology with multilevel modulation formats is an attractive solution to satisfy the rapid increase in optical traffic demand and has already been adopted in ultra-long haul systems. In the next generation, the application area will be expanded to metro systems, and smaller-sized, lower-power optical components are expected in order to realize high port density. We have developed InP-based modulators and linear driver ICs, which have enabled the modulator module size as small as 34.0 × 16.5 × 6.0 mm3. We demonstrated that a 224-Gbit/s DP-16QAM modulator module, including all of an InP-based modulator, four linear driver ICs, and polarization multiplexing micro-optics, has comparable performance to LiNbO3-based modulators.

Compact Receiver Module with Integrated Optical De-multiplexer for 40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s

The authors have successfully developed new compact optical receiver modules with integrated optical De-multiplexer for 40GBASE-ER4 QSFP+ and 100GBASE-LR4 CFP4. These compact optical receiver modules achieved excellent wavelength specification and sensitivity. By applying the basic structure of the compact optical receiver module for 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+, the newly developed modules are in the same form as the predecessor. The development of compact optical receiver modules are essential for QSFP+ and CFP4, which are compact optical transceivers, to realize 40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s transmission, respectively. This paper describes the design and representative specification of the new modules.

25 Gbit/s Optical Transmitter Modules for Optical Transceiver

For a 100 Gbit/s optical transceiver that satisfies the demand of high speed transmission, the authors have developed two types of 25 Gbit/s optical transmitter modules so that a user can select a module depending on transceiver architectonics. One of the two modules has an in-house driver IC for Electro-absorption (EA) modulator integrated in a laser chip and the other has no driver IC. These transmitter modules are transmitter optical sub-assembly (TOSA) type devices with flexible printed circuit (FPC) and LC receptacle. The evaluation results showed good modulation characteristics, lower power consumption and long-term reliability. This paper describes the outline of 25 Gbit/s optical transmitter module structure and evaluation results.

4H-SiC V-Groove Trench MOSFETs with the Buried p+ Regions

We have been developing a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) that has a V-groove shaped trench structure. Forming a 4H-SiC {03 _ 38 _} facet by thermochemical etching followed by thermal oxidation on the channel region of a trench MOSFET, we obtained low on-resistance because of excellent MOS interface characteristics. Furthermore, we introduced an electric field concentration layer with a p+ type buried region into a drift layer in order to raise high breakdown voltage, suppressing gate insulation film breakdown in the trench bottom. Specific on-resistance and breakdown voltage of the trench MOSFET were measured to be 3.5 mΩcm2 (VGS = 18 V, VDS = 1 V) and 1,700 V, respectively. The introduction of the optimized p+ type buried region improved the breakdown voltage of the trench MOSFETs, and no performance degradation in the specific on-resistance and in the switching capability was confirmed. The typical turn-on and turn-off switching time for the resistive load switching characteristic were estimated to be 92 ns and 27 ns, respectively, at a drain voltage of 600 V. We also tested the stability of threshold voltage in the trench MOSFETs.

Compact SiC Power Module for High Speed Switching

A silicon carbide (SiC) power module can offer a higher speed switching performance compared to a silicon (Si) power module. The excessive voltage overshooting caused by the fast turn off switching may damage the power module or the application system itself by exceeding its absolute maximum ratings, where the voltage overshooting must be proportional to the current changing rate and the stray inductance in the module. In order to avoid such large overshooting, the reduction of the inductance is necessary. To overcome such problems, we optimized the inductance with a commercially available 3-dimensional electro-magnetic field simulator, and we assembled a SiC MOSFET with the low on-resistance in the module. As a result, we have successfully developed a module suitable for high speed switching in 20 ns.

Coated SUMIBORON BNC2010/BNC2020 for Hardened Steel Machining Realizing Long and Stable Tool Life

In the automotive industry, a trend is seen that in line with the acceleration of automakers’ transferring production to developing countries, an increasing number of production lines are unmanned, or operated by a small number of people. For that reason, there are strong demands for cutting tools having long and stable tool life. To satisfy such demands, we have developed Coated SUMIBORON BNC2010/BNC2020. Compared with conventional cutting tools, Coated SUMIBORON BNC2010 has improved in notch-wear resistance and achieves longer tool life, even in high-precision cutting of strict surface roughness criteria. BNC2020 has improved in breakage resistance and peeling resistance of the coating layer and achieves longer and more stable tool life in continuous and interrupted machining. This report describes the advantages and cutting performance of BNC2010/BNC2020.

Development of New Coated Carbide Grade AC6030M/AC6040M for Stainless Steel Turning

In recent years, a demand has increased for stainless steel having good recyclability and low environment load. However, due to its property of being difficult to attain stable processing with high efficiency, stainless steel is classified as one of the “difficult-to-cut materials”. In order to resolve problems of stainless steel turning, Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Corporation has developed new coated carbide grades “AC6030M” applied with new CVD coating technology “Absotech Platinum” and “AC6040M” applied with new PVD coating technology “Absotech Bronze,” along with new chip breaker “EM-type.” Having high wear- and chipping-resistance, AC6030M is a material for general processing. Having excellent fracture resistance, AC6040M is a material for intermittent machining. These new materials and new chip breaker can satisfy customer demands for cost reduction and higher productivity of stainless steel turning.

Pure Iron Based Soft Magnetic Composite Core That Enables Downsizing Automotive Reactors

With the recent increased interest in the environment, there is a growing demand for environmentally friendly vehicles like hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This product is a soft magnetic composite core used for boost converter of motor drive system in HEV or PHEV. With soft magnetic composite core, we successfully downsized and reduced weight compared with conventional electromagnetic steel sheet core by utilizing characteristics of high magnetic flux density and isotropic magnetic properties. In this development, we satisfied the demand of downsizing and weight reduction by: using pure and fine iron powder which is superior in downsizing, optimizing powder particle size, examining (or re-designing) of the product shape to maximize the characteristics of the soft magnetic composite, and developing surface modification method by laser processing. As a result, we developed the pure iron-based soft magnetic composite core for automotive reactor that had been produced by electromagnetic steel sheet, and achieved 10% of downsizing and weight reduction with the same performance.

Industrial Cultivation Using the Latest Sandponics System

Sandponics is a unique cultivation system self-developed in 1970s ahead of the world based on the principle that leads to a sunlight-based modern plant factory using a soil-free and greenhouse facility. Since the start of its development, the system has maintained competitive advantages of the high quality of products. Improved recently, the system now enables simple water supply management, reducing facility cost and further enhancing quality. We cultivated tomatoes, the most marketable vegetable, as a model, and successfully created unconventional tomato fruits characterized by their volume and proper sweetness and receiving a high reputation, “tasty.” Sandponics is expected to be a promising cultivation system that satisfies the demand for high quality vegetables both inside and outside Japan.

Prefatory Note: Automotive Business towards the Goals of VISION 2017

As a part of global warming countermeasures in Japan, the U.S., Europe, and China, fuel economy standards will continue to be tightened until 2025. There is a limit to what conventional methods of engine efficiency and aerodynamic improvement as well as vehicle weight reduction can achieve in order to respond to these fuel economy standards. Automobile manufacturers are therefore seeking new cost-efficient technologies to adopt from among all the available expertise lowering fuel consumption.

Aluminum Wiring Harness

As the demand for the reduction of CO2 emissions from automobiles is ever increasing, lightweight wiring harnesses have been in high demand. Effective weight reduction can be expected by replacing conventional copper electric wires with aluminum electric wires. However, aluminum wires have several drawbacks such as low electrical conductivity, low tensile strength, and poor workability, as well as a strong insulating oxide film on the surface and galvanic corrosion. To solve these problems, we have developed an aluminum alloy conductor with improved electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and workability. We also developed a unique serration terminal structure that maintains low contact resistance and sufficient wire retention force even under a thick oxide layer. We also established an anti-corrosion technology that prevents galvanic corrosion by molding the crimped joint of the terminal. This paper explains respective solutions indetail.

Downsizing of Relay Box with Semiconductor Fuses

With the increase of the number of electrical devices used in a vehicle, compact engine rooms are required, and accordingly, the relay box needs to be downsized. We have developed a semiconductor device that consists of a fuse and relay, and successfully reduced its size by 49% and weight by 58%.

Aluminum Pipe Shielded High-Voltage Wiring Harness

In hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which have spread rapidly recently, the hybrid system consists of a high voltage battery, an inverter and a motor connected with a high-voltage wiring harnesses, and has good mileage performance. An under-floor wiring harness is required to perform as a protection against stone chipping when the car is moving, and as a shielding against the electromagnetic effect. The conventional wiring harness has resin protectors from stone chipping and braided wires for electromagnetic shielding. An aluminum pipe shielded high-voltage wiring harness with the aim of the unification of protection and electromagnetic shielding was developed in 2005 for hybrid electric vehicles of Honda Motor Co., Ltd. In this report, some features of the aluminum pipe shielded high-voltage wiring harness are described.

Shielding Performance of High-Voltage Wiring Harnesses - Comparison between European and Japanese Technologies -

Electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles have a high potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Currently we are developing and producing wiring harnesses to connect high-voltage components that are not used in conventional vehicles. For a highvoltage and large-current circuit, compatibility with the generally used 12 V system is important to avoid electromagnetic compatibility problems, and thus, the development of shielding technology for the high-voltage wiring harnesses is essential. This paper introduces a shielding measurement system based on the transfer impedance method used mainly in Europe. The measurement result showed that our aluminum pipe shielded wiring harness has excellent shielding performance.

Electromagnetic Noise Analysis of High-Voltage Wiring Harnesses

High-voltage wiring harnesses that connect an inverter to a motor in a hybrid car need to be designed to suppress electromagnetic emissions that can interfere with other electric devices nearby when alternating currents flow through the wires. To address this issue, we have studied the application of computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis to the electromagnetic shielding design of these harnesses. This paper reports an example application of CAE analysis to the estimation of noise emissions and discusses the relationships between the electromagnetic field and the voltage or current in the system.

Small and Lightweight Reactor for Boost Converter

The number of motorized vehicles, such as hybrid and electric ones, are increasing rapidly due to environmental concerns, energy saving efforts and the increasing oil price. To promote the use of these vehicles, motors need to be reduced in size and weight, while also ensuring driving and acceleration performance comparable to that of gasoline vehicles. We have developed a small and lightweight reactor*1, a key component for a boost converter used in a motor. Using a new magnetic material and heat dissipation structure, we have succeeded in a size and weight reduction of the reactor by 10%, while maintaining the same performance level as conventional reactors.

Bidirectional Charging Unit for Vehicle-to-X (V2X) Power Flow

The concept of vehicle-to-X (V2X), which transmits electricity from an on-board battery to infrastructure, is expected to be a key to smart grids. With V2X technology, we can use electricity stored in large-capacity batteries of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) when necessary. To realize this concept, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed various technologies related to EVs, PHEVs, and infrastructure. This paper outlines our EV and PHEV bidirectional charging unit to be used for “V2X” power flow.

High Durability Terminal for Hot Plug Charger

Electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are now the focus of the world`s attention for their low greenhouse gas emissions. The power chargers for these vehicles are generally used outdoors almost every day. Therefore, the charging connector has to withstand severe conditions such as dust, sea breezes, rain, and numerous mechanical cycles. In developing a charging connector, we used our original contact structure to achieve high durability and a stable performance.

Small and Lightweight Anti-Vibration Rubber Products

In the automobile market, regulations have become tighter on the emissions of environmental pollutants such as exhaust gases and carbon dioxide. While automakers are accelerating the development of hybrid cars and fuel-cell vehicles, weight reduction of automotive parts is highly sought for fuel savings. Sumitomo Riko Co., Ltd. develops technologies for reducing the size and weight of anti-vibration rubber products. Smaller anti-vibration rubber products are subject to larger input distortion and result in lower durability. To address this challenge, we have developed a high durability rubber using chemical bonding. The rubber is twice as durable as conventional rubber, and enables a size and weight reduction of products by about 30%, while maintain durability.

Noise Absorbing Material with Thermal Conductance “MIF”

With the advanced development of environment-friendly cars, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, automotive electronic products are required to have lower acoustic noise performance to create quiet vehicles. Polyurethane foam has high heat insulating property, therefore it is widely used as a sound proofing material; however, it cannot be used for electronic products like motors with Joule heat. This paper reports on Sumitomo Riko Co., Ltd.’s new polyurethane foaming method that significantly enhances the thermal conductivity. We also succeeded in the creation of sound proofing products that have high sound insulation property and thermal conductivity, by using this technology in combination with our original heat resistance polyurethane foam and molding technology.

Application of GaAs Device Technology to Millimeter-Waves

This paper introduces a novel three-dimensional wafer-level chip size package (3-D WLCSP) technology developed by Sumitomo Electric Device Innovations, Inc. and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Our 3-D WLCSP monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) employs 0.1 μm-gate AlGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (PHEMTs) and is designed to be flip-chip assembled as an excellent platform at all frequencies from 10 GHz to millimeter-waves. In the millimeter-wave region, the 76 GHz- and 79 GHz-bands automotive radars are rapidly growing in popularity and the 80 Hz-band (E-band) high-speed microwave communication transceiver is taking off in production. This paper describes our 3-D WLCSP MMIC for such applications, making a comparison between 3-D WLCSP and Si-based technologies.

InP-based Photodetector Monolithically Integrated with 90° Hybrid for 100 Gbit/s Compact Coherent Receivers

Digital coherent transmission is a promising technology for the next generation 100 Gbit/s transmission systems, and the development of compact coherent receivers and other optical components is essential to realize smaller coherent transceivers. Using InP-based monolithic integration of a 90° hybrid and waveguide photodiodes (PDs), we have developed a photodetector that provides high responsivity and high reliability. The compact coherent receiver, employing these InP-based integration devices, achieved a high sensitivity and demodulation of 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK modulated signals. These results reveal that the InP-based photodetector monolithically integrated with the 90° hybrid will contribute to the realization of compact coherent receivers for 100 Gbit/s and beyond transmission systems.

Ultra-High-Density Optical Cable with Rollable Ribbons for Simple Installation and Cost Reduction

This paper describes a newly developed ultra-high-density optical fiber cable containing rollable 4-fiber ribbons with a fiber adhesive part and a single-fiber part. The 24-fiber cable is an aerial distribution cable that has sheath configurations similar to a conventional optical thinner drop cable and can therefore be drastically downsized compared with a conventional aerial non-slotted core cable. The cable also has multiple notches on the sheath, with strength members, plastic tapes and yarns surrounding the rollable ribbons, offering easy fiber ribbons extraction from the cable. Moreover, we have also adopted 24MPO optical connectors for joint boxes and on both ends of the cable, which simplifies cable installation and reduces installation time and cost.

Advanced Infrared Beacon with Increased Communication Capacity

Infrared beacons have been installed on roads since the beginning of the 1990s, many of which are now reaching the point when they need to be replaced. For the replacement, we have developed an advanced infrared beacon that has increased communication capacity. It enables upgraded traffic signal control and provides detailed traffic information by collecting tracking data of vehicles. The beacon can be also used for the Signal Information Drive System (SIDS), which promotes eco driving by providing drivers with the signal information on the route. This paper outlines the advanced infrared beacon, the development challenges and our manufacturing efforts.

Ecological Ballast Water Treatment System “ECOMARINE UV”

Sumitomo Electric has developed the chemical-free and eco-friendly ballast water treatment system ‘ECOMARINE UV’ that utilizes filtration and UV disinfection. By using the unique high-efficiency filter unit, the ECOMARINE UV ensures the high organism removal efficiency and the lowest power consumption among UV technology-based systems worldwide. Through the element technology development and the verification tests with prototype system, the ballast water treatment system with treatment capacity of 200 m3/h was completed and installed on the cruise ship ‘ASUKA II’ managed by NYK CRUISES CO., LTD. The series of performance tests were successfully finished in January 2014 and the Type Approval was granted by the Japanese government in June 2014. The following is a report of development background, system features and test results of ECOMARINE UV.

Sumidia Binderless Ball-Nose Endmills “NPDB” for Direct Milling of Cemented Carbide

There has been a growing demand for cutting tools that can be used for the direct milling of cemented carbide materials to create high precision mold/die parts at low costs. However, conventional tools are insufficient in chipping resistance, wear resistance, and edge sharpness. To address these challenges, the authors have developed “Sumidia Binderless NPD10,” a nano-polycrystalline diamond that has extremely high hardness and strength with no anisotropic mechanical properties. Adopting the NPD10 diamond for the edge, the authors have created milling tools Sumidia Binderless ballnose endmills “NPDB.” These endmills exhibit excellent cutting performance in the direct milling of cemented carbide.

New Hardening Processes for Transmission Synchronizer Hubs

Synchronizer hubs are powder metal parts often used in vehicles for manual and dual clutch transmissions. The synchronizer hub, which synchronizes mechanical connections to shift gears, needs to have high strength and durability. Although these properties can be improved by carburization or partial hardening, such processes can lead to increased costs. We used a roller hearth high temperature furnace that can be cooled rapidly, and optimized the material composition and sintering conditions. Thus, we have succeeded in the development of synchronized hubs via sinter hardening, thus eliminating the second hardening process.

Composition Imaging System for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography “Compovision-OCT”

We have developed an optical coherence tomography system, Compovision-OCT (CV-OCT) that detects lipid for intravascular diagnosis. This system is developed by combining our proprietary Compovision technology, which visualizes the composition of the object using near-infrared light, and optical coherence tomography, which visualizes the cross-sectional tomographic image of the object using interference of light. The main feature of CV-OCT is that it utilizes the near-infrared light in the 1.7 μm wavelength band, which shows an absorption peak of lipid contained in coronary artery plaque. To achieve a performance needed in clinical applications, this system employs a broadband light source based on super-luminescent diodes and spectroscopic line camera. This results in an acquisition rate of 47 kHz per a line of cross-sectional image, and a sensitivity over 100 dB for detecting weak light reflected from the object. We also demonstrate lipid distribution imaging by CV-OCT using an artificial coronary artery plaque model, and confirm the accuracy for lipid detection is more than 90%, which would be sufficiently high for application to plaque diagnosis. This paper presents the feature, configuration, image processing, basic performance of the CV-OCT system and results of evaluation using coronary plaque model.

Novel Bridged Carbon Nanofibers Grown by Cleaving Carburized Iron Substrates

We developed a novel growth method for carbon nanofibers (CNFs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and multilayered graphene sheets, where the metal nanoparticle catalyst and template substrates were not used for growth of the CNFs. The CNFs were grown with the bridge formation between the cleaved crack walls through the carburizing heat treatment of the high purity iron oxide foils in an acetylene gas flow. We indicate a possibility that the bridging growth CNFs (BG-CNFs) are formed by division of an unknown novel iron phase including a large amount of carbon as a solid solution. We introduce the new fabrication process of BG-CNFs and possibility for the practical use.

Epitaxial Wafer for Near Infrared Sensor with High Sensitivity

Photodiodes (PDs) in the near infrared region (1.0-2.5 μm) are expected to be used for non-destructive analysis in many fields such as pharmaceutical and food industries. The authors have succeeded in the development of InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well (QW) structures that satisfy low dark current and cut-off wavelength up to 2.5 μm. Low dark current, more than one order of magnitude lower than molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), was realized by fabricating PDs with InP capping layers grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). A large number of QWs with high crystal quality were successfully grown by optimizing the growth condition. The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) in the near infrared region was about 48%, which is higher than that of MBE. These results indicate the possibility of high-performance analysis equipment that enables more detailed analysis.

Low Power Consumption (< 1 W) Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser for Gas Sensing

Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are promising compact light sources for high-speed and high-sensitivity gas sensing in the mid-infrared region. A QCL has high-speed performance, and its lasing wavelength can cover the entire midinfrared region by controlling the thickness and composition of the superlattice layers in the active region. For the practical use of QCLs, their power-consumption needs to be reduced to 1 W or lower. However, as reducing the operation voltage of a QCL is difficult due to its oscillation mechanism, the threshold current needs to be reduced to reduce power consumption. For this purpose, we reduced the size of a QCL by adopting a buried hetero structure, high-reflectivity facet coating, and our original vertical transition active layer. As a result, we reduced the threshold current and succeeded in developing a low power-consumption QCL with a threshold power consumption as low as 0.52 W under continuous wave (CW) operation at 27°C.

Prefatory Note: Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Technology Has Entered a New Phase

Japan, the U.S., and European countries are striving to improve both vehicles and infrastructure systems in order to reduce the environmental impact of the transportation sector, which constitutes 23% of global CO2 emissions. More specifically, to reduce greenhouse gases and maintain a sustainable global environment, these countries are developing fuel-efficient, low-impact cars, such as plug-in hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles, and promoting smarter and more efficient use of existing infrastructure by employing eco-friendly driving practices and fuel-saving route planning. While continuing the above research and development, they are also appropriately addressing existing and ongoing issues, such as measures or dealing with the aging society, the rehabilitation of old expressways, bridges, and tunnels, and the development of robust, disaster-resistant social infrastructure.

Sumitomo Electric’s Approach for Intelligent Transport Systems

"Traffic conditions in Japan have been improved through the widespread use of traffic control systems, including signal controllers, in the late 1960s and the electronic toll collection systems in the 1990s. Currently, efforts for further reduction of traffic congestion and accidents have been made by using intelligent transport system (ITS) technology that wirelessly connects vehicles to vehicles and vehicles to infrastructure. ITS technology has now further advanced through the emergence of advanced infrared beacons. In emerging economies, on the other hand, there have been serious traffic congestion issues and increased road accidents due to rapid growth. ITS and its wireless communication technology are expected to be used in building effective signal control systems at low cost. To meet these global expectations, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. will continue to work on the development of ITS technology, drawing on its wide ranging expertise."

Driving Safety Support Systems Utilizing ITS Radio System

We are striving to develop the Driving Safety Support System (DSSS) that aims to prevent accidents by providing drivers with necessary information for safe driving. We developed a DSSS with infrared (IR) beacons, which has been practically used since July 2011. Now, we have shifted our target to the development of a DSSS with an intelligent transport system (ITS) radio system that can provide sensor data and other dynamic information that is not available with IR beacons. This paper describes the requirements for the DSSS with an ITS radio system, such as communication area and sensor detection area, and presents the result of a verification test.

Cooperative Inter-Infrastructure Communication System Using 700 MHz Band

In Japan, as part of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS), research, development and deployment of the Universal Traffic Management System (UTMS) have been promoted for the purposes of environmental preservation, safety support and traffic congestion reduction. For the application of UTMS, infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V/V2I) and interinfrastructure (I2I) communications are vitally important. As one of the possible solutions to these needs, we are studying the use of the 700 MHz radio band. This paper reports on our research and development for the practical application of UTMS using the 700 MHz band for I2V/V2I, I2I and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. We have focused particularly on I2I communications for enhanced traffic signal control.

Time Synchronization of Plural Roadside Units in 700 MHz Band Intelligent Transport Systems

The intelligent transport system (ITS) using the 700 MHz band accommodates both road-to-vehicle communications (RVC) and inter-vehicle communications (IVC) with a single channel by assigning different transmission time periods for each roadside unit (RSU) and on-board equipment (OBE). As each RSU sends its transmission timestamps and related data (RSU slots) to OBE nearby, each RSU needs to maintain accurate time synchronization for efficient and stable time division control. This paper investigates the causes and effects of the degradation of RSU synchronization and presents a potential solution in simulation and field tests.

Estimation of EV Power Consumption and Route Planning Using Probe Data

"Against the global backdrop of increasingly strict fuel regulations, the number of electrical vehicles (EV) is expected to rise dramatically. However, EVs have less mileage than gasoline vehicles. While efforts have been made for the improvement of battery performance, we also use different approaches to this issue. In this study, we developed an engine that can estimate EV power consumption by building a model formula corresponding to the characteristics of each road link. To devise this formula, a distributed processing platform was adopted. We also developed an application platform that supports route planning by providing the drivers with information about power consumption and battery charging stations. These developments will contribute to the creation of a sustainable society by promoting the use of EVs and reducing CO2 emissions."

New Traffic Signal Controller for Improved Fail-Safe Functions

A traffic signal controller controls the lighting of traffic signals so that vehicles and pedestrians can travel safely and smoothly. As an erroneous operation of the controller may cause a serious accident, it requires the strictest fail-safe functions in the entire traffic control system. The authors reviewed the fail-safe functions for a newly developed traffic signal controller. This paper introduces the fail-safe functions including G-G abnormality detection.

Automatic License Plate Detection and Recognition in Thailand

A license plate recognition (LPR) system with image sensors, which enables vehicle identification, plays a very important role in traffic flow control. In Thailand, chronic traffic congestion due to rapid motorization is a serious problem, and LPR can be one of the solutions. However, there are some technical obstacles to overcome such as the recognition of the Thai alphabet. We have developed a novel method that enables the LPR system to work well regardless of the plate format or alphabet. We conducted experiments using image data collected in Thailand, and obtained positive results with a plate detection rate of 94.6% and a character recognition rate of 92.0%. We will continue to improve the performance of the LPR system for practical use in Thailand.

Improvement of Traffic Signal Control Using Probe Data

Originally, traffic control has been aimed at the safety and comfortableness of transportation. Recently, there has been a growing demand for reducing CO2 emissions by intelligently controlling traffic signals depending on traffic conditions. However, this requires many detectors and high installation costs. To address this problem, we have focused on the probe data collected by vehicles through GPS or other devices. We have developed a signal control system that calculates consecutive spatial traffic information (spatial data), such as queue length, based on the probe data. In the simulation experiments conducted by the UTMS (Universal Traffic Management System) Society of Japan*1, we demonstrated this system and presented the possibility of reducing the number of detectors.

Linearity Improvement of GaN HEMT for Wireless Communication Applications

For GaN HEMTs to be widely used for microwave amplifiers such as point-to-point backhaul systems, good linearity is required. This paper describes our recent achievement in improving linearity by using a newly constructed large signal model of a 0.4 μm GaN HEMT. The model analysis revealed that the intermodulation distortion (IMD) at a backed-off region of more than 10 dB is determined by the sub-threshold gm profile; in other words, steep rising gm profile degrades IMD. We created a GaN HEMT that has a thin n layer inserted in the buffer (ini-buffer) structure, and achieved a significant IMD improvement in the backed-off region of more than 8 dB.

SOA Module for 100GBASE-ER4

The authors have developed a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) for a 100 GE CFP transceiver module. The design and packaging of the optical coupling system have been optimized for downsizing, and an optical fiber with a small bend radius was adopted for flexible layout. The amplifier meets the IEEE 802.3ba 100GBASE-ER4 standard, andfeatures a gain bandwidth covering the LAN-WDM bandwidth and low polarization dependence of the gain.

Mid-infrared Sensors with InAs/GaSb Superlattice Absorption Layers Grown on InP Substrates

Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (SLs), which are attractive for the absorption layers of mid-infrared sensors, are usually grown on GaSb substrates. However, since GaSb substrates absorb infrared light, other substrates with high transparency are favorable for back-illuminated sensors. We have focused on InP substrates with high transparency and relatively small lattice mismatch to GaSb. The crystallographic and optical properties of SLs have been improved as the GaSb buffer layer thickness increases due to the reduction of threading dislocations. We have successfully fabricated sensors with the cutoff wavelength of 6.5 μm using InAs/GaSb SL absorption layers grown on InP substrates for the first time.

New Heat Sink for Railroad Vehicle Power Modules

As countermeasures against global warming and fossil fuel depletion, electric railways have been increasingly installed for their excellent energy efficiency. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. and its group company A.L.M.T. Corp. have developed a new heat sink that is made of a magnesium silicon carbide composite (MgSiC) to be used for the power modules of railroad vehicles. The MgSiC heat sinks are superior in thermal conductivity and easy to process compared with the conventional heat sink made of aluminum silicon carbide composite (AlSiC). The new heat sink is expected to contribute to the development of advanced power modules.

Nano-Composite Heat-Shrinkable Tubing

Sumitube is heat-shrinkable tubing that is widely used in the electronics, automotive, aerospace and other industries for insulation protection and waterproofing of electric wire terminals or harnesses, bundling electric wires, insulation protection of electronic parts or components, and corrosion protection of metal pipes. Recently, thinner wall heatshrinkable tubing is required for the purpose of saving space and weight, especially for applications involving electronic parts and components. However, thinner wall tubing generally causes difficulty in covering electronic parts due to its lack of rigidity. Therefore, we have developed a very thin wall heat-shrinkable tubing by applying polymer nano-composite technology (nano-meter size fillers dispersed in polymer), which has sufficient rigidity for easy handling, positioning, and installation over electronic parts or components and shrinks in less time, at a lower temperature.

Optimal Energy Management System for Isolated Micro Grids

We have developed an energy management system (EMS), which controls power generation and consumption optimally based on the mixed integer linear programming method. The EMS has now been under long term and verification using the isolated micro grid in our Osaka Works, comprising renewable energy sources, a secondary battery and loads. The system aims to control unstable renewable energy, monitor the battery’s state of charge (SOC), and maintain the automatic operation. The system has successfully achieve the goals and have operated for over one year without any significant failure.

Large Current and Low AC Loss High Temperature Superconducting Power Cable Using REBCO Wires

High temperature superconducting (HTS) products, such as power cables and motors, have higher transmission capabilities and lower AC loss, and are more compact than conventional counterparts. With these advantages, HTS products are expected to contribute to energy saving and global warming prevention. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. conducted a national joint R&D project from 2008 to 2012 in order to develop HTS coated conductors and build a 15 m long 66 kV/5 kA class “3-in-One” HTS cable system. We first conducted a short cable test to identify the requirements for the HTS cable and developed an appropriate conductor. Then, we produced a total of 6 km of HTS coated conductors, and built a cable system to be installed into the existing underground conduits of 150 mm in inner diameter. The measured AC loss of our new cable was less than one-third that of a conventional cable even after considering cooling system efficiency. The cable system performance was verified to be stable in a long-term operation test.

Exclusive Turning Cermet Grade “T1000A”

Cermet tools have low reactivity with steel and other ferrous materials and are therefore used mainly for surface finishing. Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Corporation has successfully developed a new cermet grade “T1000A” for turning. In recent years, high-feed or high-speed processing has been commonly used in manufacturing industries for process cost reduction. In this circumstance, cermet tools are desired to have stable performance and a long tool life. T1000A features excellent wear resistance and toughness resulting from the optimization of alloy composition. T1000A provides a high quality finished surface owing to optimized structure control, which was attained by our new sintering technology. Furthermore, T1000A is designed to be used for cutting not only steel but also cast iron and ferrous powder metal. This paper outlines the features of T1000A and its cutting performance.

Brilliant Coat Cermet T1500Z for Steel Turning

In recent years, due to the rising prices and increased use of minor metals, cermet tools that use less tungsten are in the spotlight. Coated cermet tools, used for various purposes from rough machining to finishing, need to have stable and high-quality cutting performance and a long service life. In order to meet these user needs, Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Corporation has developed a new coated cermet T1500Z. Employing Brilliant Coat, a next-generation lubrication film, T1500Z displays superior lubrication performance and significantly reduces the reaction with ironbased metals. Consequently, T1500Z reduces cutting resistance by 30% as compared to conventional grades. T1500Z has a wide application range and contribute to processing cost reduction.

Body Pressure Sensing Mattress for Bedsore Prevention

We have developed an air mattress that prevents patients from developing pressure ulcers (bedsores), thereby improving their quality of life (QOL), promoting their rehabilitation, and reducing the burden of caregivers when changing a patient’s body position. Based on suggestions from medical professionals, our mattress is equipped with “Smart Rubber” (SR) sensors and two-balloon air cells. The sensors measure body pressure and the tension of the air cells is accordingly adjusted in order to fit to the patient’s body shape. This mattress disperses body pressure smoothly, provides comfortable bed rest and helps patients’ early ambulation.

Prefatory Note: Efforts toward Building Higher-Speed Broadband Optical Networks

With the collapse of the conventional telecommunication carrier business model based on distance-based time duration billing system, Internet Protocol (IP) services with monthly flat-rate pricing are rapidly growing. Owing to the accelerating progress in the performance of digital processors and memory, expansion of communication line bandwidth with the use of optical fiber cables, and great advances in mobile terminals as a result of progress in mobile radio telecommunication technologies, business models of communication carriers are dramatically changing to service provider models that can cover sharp drops in unit price per bit using profits from cloud services as well as content and applications. At the same time, this has presented a huge challenge to the global business models of infocommunication system vendors and parts device vendors, which has led to significant changes in technological development and product strategies as described below.

Optical Thunderbolt Cable

Thunderbolt, an innovative high-speed input/output (I/O) technology developed by Intel Corporation and Apple Inc., enables 10Gb/s transmission between a computer and peripheral devices. Based on Intel’s technical specifications, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed an Optical Thunderbolt Cable by drawing on its optical fiber and module technologies. The Optical Thunderbolt Cable has the capability of long-distance transmission of up to 30 meters, excellent robustness, durability, and flexibility when using specially designed optical fiber. This paper describes the outline of Optical Thunderbolt Cable design and test results of its characteristics and reliability.

Multi-core Fiber for High-Capacity Long-Haul Spatially-Multiplexed Transmission

Data traffic is growing exponentially due to the emergence of various network services. Although the transmission capacity of optical fibers has dramatically increased thanks to advanced communication technologies such as wavelength-division multiplexing and multi-level modulation, the capacity is rapidly approaching its fundamental limit as the amplification bandwidth has been used up and drastic improvements of the signal-to-noise ratio cannot be expected any further. To overcome this problem, space-division multiplexing has come to attract lots of attention, and we have conducted research and development on multi-core fiber (MCF), achieving positive results. This paper reviews the major achievements of our MCF research and development.

Connector Type Fan-out Device for Multi-core Fiber

The space division multiplexing (SDM) system using multi-core fiber (MCF) with plurality cores in one fiber is one of the promising candidates to overcome the capacity limitation of conventional fiber. To achieve practical use of MCF, a fanout device that allows each MCF core to be connected into individual single-core fiber (SCF) is indispensable. The authors have developed a pluggable fiber bundle type fan-out for MCF using an SC connector, which has low coupling loss of less than 0.5dB, low crosstalk of less than -50dB and high return loss of more than 50dB.

Design of Ultra-High-Density Optical Fiber Cable With Rollable 4-Fiber Ribbons

This paper describes a new design for an Ultra-High-Density optical fiber cable with a rollable 4-fiber ribbon. The new cable has a sheath configuration similar to that of the conventional non-slotted optical cable and contains a rollable ribbon consisting of fiber adhesive parts and single-fiber parts alternately arranged in longitudinal and transverse directions. Unlike the conventional ribbon that generally maintains its shape with fibers lying on a straight line, this new ribbon freely changes its shape, providing the highest fiber density with reduced attenuation and residual strain in the cable. Thus, this ribbon reduces the diameter of the optical fiber cable. Furthermore, this ribbon provides handling characteristics equivalent to conventional ribbons and offers forward compatibility.

Commercialization of FTTH System for Cable-TV Operators

A large number of cable-TV operators in Japan are intensely competing with carriers. Also, cable-TV operators are currently considering installing the FTTH systems as an effective solution since their current aging HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coaxial) systems need to be replaced. Broad Net Mux Corporation (BNMUX) has offered the best solution for these cable-TV operators. This paper introduces the features of the FTTH products developed based on the combination of BNMUX's HFC technology and Sumitomo Electric Industry Group’s optical fiber and high-speed communication technologies.

Improvement in Maintenance and Operation of 10G-EPON System

FTTH (Fiber To The Home) is the mainstream broadband service in Japan, and the number of its subscribers has been increasing. Many of those subscribers are using telephone service, terrestrial digital television service, and video-ondemand service provided by IP networks. Therefore, FTTH systems are increasingly required to have high stability and the same redundancy that a telephone switchboard has. To meet this demand, we have developed the next-generation FTTH technology 10G-EPON (10 Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network) system that provides the protection function to achieve redundancy at the time of maintenance or emergency. It also includes the in-service firmware update function. This paper presents the evaluation results of this system and introduces our approaches to the improvement in maintenance and operation of 10G-EPON system.

Tunable Laser Controller IC for Digital Coherent Optical Communication Systems

The authors have successfully developed a tunable laser controller IC for digital coherent optical communication systems. The developed IC is composed of both analog and digital circuits fabricated by the CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process, which contributes to the reduction of chip size and power dissipation. The IC, used in combination with an in-house tunable laser module, achieves even lower power dissipation by introducing switching regulators and can be implemented to small tunable assemblies, such as a micro-ITLA (Integrable Tunable Laser Assembly). This paper outlines the development of the tunable laser controller IC and its performance when used with an in-house tunable laser module.

Narrow Spectral Linewidth Full-Band Wavelength Tunable Lasers for Digital Coherent Communication Systems

Full-band wavelength tunable lasers with high optical output power and narrow spectral linewidth have been required for digital coherent communication systems. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. manufactures integrable tunable laser assemblies (ITLAs) using chirped-sampled-grating distributed-reflector laser diodes (CSG-DR-LDs) as full-band wavelength tunable laser suitable for high optical output power operation. The authors optimized multi quantum well (MQW) active layers in the CSG-DR-LD, and achieved high optical output power of over +16dBm and narrow spectral linewidth below 200 kHz. These characteristics make the lasers promising for 100 Gbit/s digital coherent communication systems.

100 Gbit/s Compact Digital Coherent Receiver Using InP-based Mixer

For next generation digital coherent optical transmission systems, compact transceivers like CFP (100G Form-factor Pluggable) or CFP2 form factor have been highly anticipated. The authors have successfully developed a compact digital coherent receiver for such applications. The InP-based MMI (Multi-Mode Interferometer)-mixer chip integrated with photodiodes (PDs) is the key element in fabricating a compact receiver module. The transmission performance of the prototype is same as a conventional large form factor receiver.

40 Gbit/s Small-Form Low-Power Optical Transceiver

The authors have successfully developed an optical transceiver that complies with Quad Small Form-Factor Pluggable Plus (QSFP+) standard. The optical interface conforms to the 40GBASE-LR4 for 40 gigabit Ethernet over up to 10 km single mode fibers using 1.3 μm-range coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The transceiver is designed for high-density application in data center networks, where low power consumption and superior electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance are required. We have achieved less than 2.5 W total power consumption by utilizing the quadrupled shunt-driving technique and very low emission levels. This paper presents the outline of the development and evaluation results.

850 nm VCSEL and PD for Ultra High Speed Data Communication over Multimode Fiber

With the advent of cloud computing, the proliferation of smart phones and tablets, and the omnipresence of social networking, the bandwidth need for data communication continues its phenomenal growth. Less than two years after the high data rate of 14Gbit/s was finalized in 2011, the new high data rate of 25Gbit/s to 28Gbit/s is already upon us. In this paper, we report the development of the 850nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and photodiode (PD) at Sumitomo Electric Device Innovations USA (SEDU) to operate at this new data rate. These devices are targeted to use in active optical cables (AOC) and transceivers over multimode fiber for optical interconnect and short reach applications. We have successfully demonstrated their operation in an EDR AOC running at 25.8Gbit/s over 50 meters of OM3 fiber at Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC) 2013.

6056 Aluminum Alloy Wire for Automotive Fasteners

The need for high-strength aluminum fasteners is growing quickly with the aim of reducing the weight of automobiles. Sumitomo Electric Toyama Co., Ltd. has developed 6056 aluminum alloy wire suitable for these fasteners. Owing to its homogeneous microstructures, the wire achieved a high tensile strength of 420 MPa and yield strength of 375 MPa, as well as a maximum reduction ratio of 85% without surface cracks in a compressive test at room temperature. These features will enable fastener manufacturers to improve their productivity.

Test Automation Support Tool for Automobile Software

In recent years, automotive components have become more sophisticated and the electronic control unit (ECU) has employed more complex large-scale software. As the product scale becomes larger, an increasing number of tests are required to assure product quality. Even in the case that the auto-testing tools are used, test patterns need to be input manually. This process requires significant amounts of man-hours particularly when the product types vary and the test patterns need to be modified for input signal changes. In order to improve the efficiency of this product development process, we have developed a tool that converts the simulation patterns used in model-based design into those for product tests. This tool automatically adjusts the input signals, and thus, successfully reduces the man-hours by 50% and improves the test quality with common test patterns.

11.1 Gbit/s Pluggable Small Form Factor DWDM Optical Transceiver Module

We have developed an SFP+ (Enhanced Small Form Factor Pluggable) optical transceiver module for 11.1 Gbit/s DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexing) application, which can cover up to 100 km reach over standard singlemode fiber. We have also successfully reduced its total power dissipation to less than 1.5 W by utilizing a newly developed laser diode chip. This world’s smallest and power-saving DWDM SFP+ optical transceiver will contribute to the downsizing of high density optical transmission equipment.

Triple-Band Polarization Diversity Antenna with Loop Element

Antennas for mobile communication base stations need to support a wide range of frequency bands, including 800 MHz, 1.5 GHz and 2.0 GHz, while also responding the demand for polarization diversity and size reduction for easier installation. We have developed a triple-band polarization diversity antenna using loop elements, which successfully reduces the antenna size by about 60% compared with the conventional dipole antenna.

Application of Simulation Technology to the Development of High-Speed Electronics

As the signal processing speed of electronic devices increases, transmission capability over 10 Gbps has been required for printed wiring boards. As electronic equipment has reduced in size and advanced in processing speed, the heat density of such equipment has increased. As high accuracy is required for the integrity of several Gbps signals, we have combined the three-dimensional electromagnetic-field simulation with the signal integrity simulation. In the thermal simulations, we have increased the accuracy of the simulation by external environment reproduction, transient simulation and the modeling of the copper patterns for printed wiring boards. Thus, we have built the optimal solution that meets the product specification. This paper describes the latest simulation technologies (signal integrity, EMC, three-dimensional electromagnetic-field analysis, and thermal simulation) along with some examples of product designs.

High-Power and High-Efficiency True Green Laser Diodes

The authors demonstrated InGaN green laser diodes (LDs) that were grown on semipolar {2021} GaN substrate and achieved output power of over 100 mW in the spectral region beyond 530 nm. In the range of 525-532 nm, these LDs realized wall plug efficiencies as high as 7.0-8.9%, which exceed those reported for c-plane LDs. Moreover, the InGaN green LDs are expected to have a long lifetime of over 5,000 hours under auto power control of 50 mW at a case temperature of 55°C. These results suggest that the InGaN green LDs grown on the {2021} plane are ideal as light sources for applications that require wavelengths of over 525 nm.

Optical Characteristics of InGaN Quantum Wells for High-Power and High-Efficiency True Green Laser Diodes

Optical characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) for green laser diodes on semi-polar {2021} GaN substrates were assessed using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). The InGaN QWs exhibited a remarkably shorter PL lifetime of 3.1 ns compared with that of conventional c-plane InGaN QWs, indicating that the piezoelectric fields are reduced greatly on {2021} planes. Furthermore, the characteristic energy E0 was estimated to be as small as 15.1 meV, which is less than one third of the reported value for c-plane InGaN QWs. Since E0 represents the localization depth in InGaN QWs, this result proves the high homogeneity of the In composition on {2021} planes. This conclusion was also verified by the spatially uniform distribution of the PL intensity and wavelength obtained by SNOM. These features are essential for highly efficient emissions in the green spectral region, consequently suggesting that the semi-polar {2021} plane is suitable for fabricating green laser diodes.

Low On-Resistance High Breakdown Voltage GaN Diodes on Low Dislocation Density GaN Substrates

Vertical gallium nitride (GaN) Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates with low dislocation density. A high quality n-GaN drift layer with an electron mobility of 930 cm2/Vs was obtained under the growth condition optimized by reducing the intensity of yellow luminescence using conventional photoluminescence measurements. The concentration of impurities in the n-GaN drift layer was less than the detection limit of secondary-ionmass spectroscopy. The specific on-resistance (RonA) and the breakdown voltage (VB) of the SBDs were 0.71 mΩcm2 and over 1100 V, respectively. The figure of merit (VB2/RonA) was 1.7 GW/cm2, which is highest among previously reported SBDs for both GaN and SiC. With a forward current of 6 A at a forward voltage of 1.46 V and a breakdown voltage of 600V, the SBD with an electrode area of 1.1 x 1.1 mm2 demonstrated the possibility of application for power devices.

SiC High Blocking Voltage Transistor

Recently, with the growing global interest in energy saving, power device efficiency is increasingly important. Most power devices are fabricated utilizing silicon (Si) and the performance of Si has reached its limit. Silicon Carbide (SiC) is the best candidate material for innovative power devices that can replace Si devices. The authors have developed SiC Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) with high blocking voltage and low specific onresistance characteristics that take full advantage of SiC. This paper provides an overview of the design, fabricating process, and electrical properties of high blocking voltage SiC MOSFETs. The edge termination technique is applied to SiC MOFSETs, shows a high blocking voltage of 3,850 V, and a low specific on-resistance of 14.2 mΩ cm2. These results show that the application of SiC to power electronics will provide significant benefits in improving efficiency with high voltage operation.

SiC High Channel Mobility MOSFET

SiC metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are promising candidates for high power, high speed, and high temperature switches owing to their superior properties such as wide bandgap, high breakdown electric field, high saturation velocity and high thermal conductivity. However, the excellent device characteristics expected from these physical properties have not been realized, due to the issues related to SiO2/SiC interface. Although several methods to improve the interface state have been reported, the issues of SiO2/SiC interface have not been solved. In this paper, the authors improved the interface properties by using a 4H-SiC(0-33-8) face. The fabricated MOS field effect transistor (MOSFET) showed high channel mobility compared to the conventional crystal face (4H-SiC(0001)). In addition, the MOSFET showed a low on-resistance of 4 mΩ‧cm2 with a blocking voltage of 890 V.

High-Speed Switching Power Supply Using SiC RESURF JFETs

We have developed a Silicon Carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistor (JFET) with a reduced surface field (RESURF) structure. This JFET is 2 mm × 2 mm in size and has good characteristics for high speed switching: a normal saturation current of about 250 A/cm2 at a gate voltage of 2 V, a specific on-resistance of about 13 mΩ cm2, and a maximum blocking voltage of over 250 V. Using this JFET, we have developed a novel harmonic canceling switch array (HCA) circuit which combines phase shifted signal and demonstrated pulse width modulation (PWM). The carrier wave of 20.5 MHz, which was pulse-width modulated with a 4.1 MHz input signal, was successfully demodulated.

High-Power All-Solid Secondary Battery with High Heat Resistance ( 477 KB)

We have developed an all-solid lithium-ion secondary battery consisting of a sulfide-based thin film electrolyte and pellet-type electrodes. The safety of lithium-ion batteries is significantly increased by replacing the electrolyte solutions with flame-retardant solid electrolytes. This battery has high performance characterized by a high discharge rate and excellent high-temperature cycle property. The battery showed a discharge capability of 10 C for one minute and capacity maintenance rates of 90% after 1500 cycles at 60°C, 90% after 500 cycles at 80°C, and 70% after 500 cycles at 150°C. We conclude that the thin film electrolyte has improved both the discharge rate and high-temperature cycle performance.

Non-destructive Analysis for Metal/Glass Interface Using Synchrotron Radiation ( 302 KB)

We have developed a new technique to analyze an interface between metal and glass nondestructively at Hermetic seal in electronic components. In the specimen fabrication, we employed a precise thinning technique instead of the conventional exfoliating, so that the interface would maintain its original state. In the diffraction measurements, we combined a highly brilliant x-ray from synchrotron radiation and 2-dimensional detector. By optimizing the specimen configuration, x-ray beam shape and its alignment, we succeeded in detecting diffraction peaks from a very small quantity of oxides that existed in the 1 μm thick metal/glass interface.

Dopant Mapping of Semiconductors with Scanning Electron Microscopy ( 292 KB)

This paper investigates the decrease in dopant contrast of semiconductors due to the surface contamination caused by electron irradiation during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. We have revealed that secondary electron (SE) high-pass energy filtering can significantly reduce the influence of contamination, and thus the dopant contrast remains stable during observation. In addition, the contrast is observable even at high magnification by simultaneous application of the SE energy filtering and a reverse bias voltage because the reverse bias voltage increases the contrast and relatively decreases the sensitivity to the contamination. These imaging techniques enable accurate and reproducible dopant mapping that cannot be achieved with conventional SE imaging techniques, and are therefore expected to be a significant contribution to the semiconductor manufacturing industry.